cd8 t cells
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2022 ◽  
Marta Calvet-Mirabent ◽  
Ildefonso Sanchez-Cerrillo ◽  
Noa Martin-Cofreces ◽  
Hortensia De La Fuente ◽  
Ilya Tsukalov ◽  

Dysfunction of CD8+ T cells in people living with HIV-1 (PLWH) receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has restricted the efficacy of dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapies against HIV-1. Heterogeneous immune exhaustion and metabolic states of CD8+ T cells might differentially associate with dysfunction. However, specific parameters associated to functional restoration of CD8+ T cells after DC treatment have not been investigated in detail. Here, we studied the association of ART duration with memory subsets, exhaustion and metabolic profiles of CD8+ T cells from PLWH and improvement of polyfunctional and effector HIV-1 specific responses after stimulation with Gag-adjuvant-primed DC. HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cell responses from a larger proportion PLWH on ART for more than 10 years (LT-ARTp) improved polyfunctionality and capacity to eliminate autologous p24+ infected CD4+ T cells in vitro. In contrast, CD8+ T cells from PLWH on ART for less than a decade (ST-ARTp) were less responsive to DC treatment and functional improvement was limited in this group. This was associated with lower frequencies of central memory CD8+ T cells, increased co-expression of PD1 and TIGIT and reduced mitochondrial respiration and glycolytic induction upon TCR activation. In contrast, CD8+ T cells from LT-ARTp showed increased frequencies of TIM3+PD1- cells and preserved induction of glycolysis. Treatment of dysfunctional CD8+ T cells from ST-ARTp with combined anti-PD1 and anti-TIGIT antibodies plus a glycolysis promoting drug restored their ability to eliminate infected CD4+ T cells. Together, our study identifies specific immunometabolic parameters for different PLWH subgroups potentially useful for future personalized DC-based HIV-1 vaccines.

2022 ◽  
Nadia Anikeeva ◽  
Maria Steblyanko ◽  
Leticia Kuri-Cervantes ◽  
Marcus Buggert ◽  
Michael R Betts ◽  

It is well-established that chronic HIV infection causes persistent low-grade inflammation that induces premature aging of the immune system in HIV patient including senescence of memory and effector CD8 T cells. To uncover the reasons of gradually diminished potency of CD8 T cells from chronically HIV infected people, we have analyzed cellular morphology and dynamics of the synaptic interface followed exposure of peripheral polyclonal CD8 T cells at various differentiation stages to planar lipid bilayers. The above parameters were linked to pattern of degranulation that determines efficiency of CD8 T cells cytolytic response. We found a large fraction of naive T cells from HIV infected people developing mature synapses and demonstrating focused degranulation, a signature of a differentiated T cells. Further differentiation of aberrant naive T cells leads to development of anomalous effector T cells undermining their capacity to control HIV and other viruses that could be contained otherwise.

2022 ◽  
Dylan Scott Eiger ◽  
Noelia Boldizsar ◽  
Christopher Cole Honeycutt ◽  
Julia Gardner ◽  
Stephen Kirchner ◽  

Some G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligands act as biased agonists which preferentially activate specific signaling transducers over others. Although GPCRs are primarily found at the plasma membrane, GPCRs can traffic to and signal from many subcellular compartments. Here, we determine that differential subcellular signaling contributes to the biased signaling generated by three endogenous ligands of the chemokine GPCR CXCR3. The signaling profile of CXCR3 changed as it trafficked from the plasma membrane to endosomes in a ligand-specific manner. Endosomal signaling was critical for biased activation of G proteins, β-arrestins, and ERK1/2. In CD8+ T cells, the chemokines promoted unique transcriptional responses predicted to regulate inflammatory pathways. In a mouse model of contact hypersensitivity, β-arrestin-biased CXCR3-mediated inflammation was dependent on receptor internalization. Our work demonstrates that differential subcellular signaling is critical to the overall biased response observed at CXCR3, which has important implications for drugs targeting chemokine receptors and other GPCRs.

2022 ◽  
pp. clincanres.0947.2021
Jian L. Campian ◽  
Subhajit Ghosh ◽  
Vaishali Kapoor ◽  
Ran Yan ◽  
Sukrutha Thotala ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yufei Mo ◽  
Kelvin Kai-Wang To ◽  
Runhong Zhou ◽  
Li Liu ◽  
Tianyu Cao ◽  

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection results in rapid T lymphocytopenia and functional impairment of T cells. The underlying mechanism, however, remains incompletely understood. In this study, we focused on characterizing the phenotype and kinetics of T-cell subsets with mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) by multicolor flow cytometry and investigating the association between MD and T-cell functionality. While 73.9% of study subjects displayed clinical lymphocytopenia upon hospital admission, a significant reduction of CD4 or CD8 T-cell frequency was found in all asymptomatic, symptomatic, and convalescent cases. CD4 and CD8 T cells with increased MD were found in both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients within the first week of symptom onset. Lower proportion of memory CD8 T cell with MD was found in severe patients than in mild ones at the stage of disease progression. Critically, the frequency of T cells with MD in symptomatic patients was preferentially associated with CD4 T-cell loss and CD8 T-cell hyperactivation, respectively. Patients bearing effector memory CD4 and CD8 T cells with the phenotype of high MD exhibited poorer T-cell responses upon either phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin or SARS-CoV-2 peptide stimulation than those with low MD. Our findings demonstrated an MD-associated mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2-induced T lymphocytopenia and functional impairment during the acute phase of infection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 874
Emma J. Keller ◽  
Nina Dvorina ◽  
Trine N. Jørgensen

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by dysregulated T and B lymphocytes. Type I interferons (IFN-I) have been shown to play important pathogenic roles in both SLE patients and mouse models of lupus. Recent studies have shown that B cell intrinsic responses to IFN-I are enough to drive B cell differentiation into autoantibody-secreting memory B cells and plasma cells, although lower levels of residual auto-reactive cells remain present. We speculated that IFN-I stimulation of T cells would similarly drive specific T-cell associated lupus phenotypes including the upregulation of T follicular helper cells and Th17, thereby affecting autoantibody production and the development of glomerulonephritis. Using the B6.Nba2 mouse model of lupus, we evaluated disease parameters in T cell specific IFN-I receptor (IFNAR)-deficient mice (cKO). Surprisingly, all measured CD4+ T cell abnormalities and associated intra-splenic cytokine levels (IFNγ, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IL-21) were unchanged and thus independent of IFN-I. In contrast B6.Nba2 cKO mice displayed reduced levels of effector CD8+ T cells and increased levels of Foxp3+ CD8+ regulatory T cells, suggesting that IFN-I induced signaling specifically affecting CD8+ T cells. These data suggest a role for both pathogenic and immunosuppressive CD8+ T cells in Nba2-driven autoimmunity, providing a model to further evaluate the role of these cell subsets during lupus-like disease development in vivo.

Gerontology ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Amanda Veiga Sardeli ◽  
Marcelo A. Mori ◽  
Janet M. Lord

<b><i>Background:</i></b> Highly differentiated, senescent lymphocytes are pro-inflammatory and contribute to age-related systemic inflammation, called inflammageing. There are several reports of acute changes in senescent lymphocyte counts post exercise, which potentially have consequences for systemic inflammation. However, there is little consensus since the studies differ with respect to participants, exercise protocols, cellular markers assessed, and the time point of assessment post exercise. <b><i>Objective:</i></b> We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the impact of exercise on senescent lymphocyte counts in blood immediately, 1 h and 2 h post exercise. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> The search was performed in PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane, on January 11, 2021. The 13 studies selected tested aerobic exercise effects, mainly in young men. They assessed the counts of lymphocytes (CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, and NK cells), with the following immune cell marker combinations: KLRG1+, CD57+ (only NK cells), EMRA T cells (CD45RA+CCR7−CD28−CD27−), CD28−CD27−, KLRG1+CD28−, and CD28−. Independent extraction of articles was done by 2 researchers. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval between baseline and post exercise showed significant increase (SMD &#x3e;0.9, <i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.003) in all types of senescent lymphocytes counts immediately post exercise. At 1 h post exercise, senescent CD4 T cells returned to baseline values (<i>p</i> = 0.74), CD8 T cells were reduced (−0.26 [−0.41; −0.11], <i>p</i> = 0.001), and senescent NK cells were raised (0.62 [0.14; 1.10], <i>p</i> = 0.01) above baseline. By 2 h post exercise, senescent CD4 T cells were reduced (−0.94 [−1.40; −0.48], <i>p</i> &#x3c; 0.001), CD8 T cells remained below baseline (−0.53 [−1.04; −0.009], <i>p</i> = 0.04), and NK cells had returned to baseline values (−0.29 [−0.64; 0.07], <i>p</i> = 0.11). The main determinants of heterogeneity between studies were cytomegalovirus (CMV) serostatus and the characteristics of exercise protocols. CMV+ individuals had a higher immediate lymphocytosis and 1 h post lymphopenia than CMV− individuals. Exercise performed at higher intensities and shorter durations led to higher magnitude of change in senescent lymphocyte counts at all time-points. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> The differing effects of exercise on senescent NK cells and CD4 and CD8 T cells suggest differing susceptibility to factors modulating lymphocyte extravasation such as adrenaline and exercise intensity.

2022 ◽  
pp. ji2100194
Francesco Nicoli ◽  
Mariela P. Cabral-Piccin ◽  
Laura Papagno ◽  
Eleonora Gallerani ◽  
Mathieu Fusaro ◽  

2022 ◽  
Andrea T. Nguyen ◽  
Christopher Szeto ◽  
Demetra S.M. Chatzileontiadou ◽  
Zhen Wei Marcus Tong ◽  
Michael J. Dewar-Oldis ◽  

The >30 mutated residues in the Omicron spike protein have led to its rapid classification as a new SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern. As a result, Omicron may escape from the immune system, decreasing the protection provided by COVID-19 vaccines. Preliminary data shows a weaker neutralizing antibody response to Omicron compared to the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 virus, which can be increased after a booster vaccine. Here, we report that CD8+ T cells can recognize Omicron variant epitopes presented by HLA-A*02:01 in both COVID-19 recovered and vaccinated individuals, even 6 months after infection or vaccination. Additionally, the T cell response was stronger for Omicron variant epitopes after the vaccine booster. Altogether, T cells can recognize Omicron variants, especially in vaccinated individuals after the vaccine booster.

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