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Published By American Society Of Hematology

1528-0020, 0006-4971

Blood ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Evelien G.G. Sprenkeler ◽  
Anton T.J. Tool ◽  
Stefanie Henriet ◽  
Robin van Bruggen ◽  
Taco W. Kuijpers

Neutrophils are important effector cells in the host defense against invading micro-organisms. One of the mechanisms they employ to eliminate pathogens is the release of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Although NET release and subsequent cell death known as NETosis have been intensively studied, the cellular components and factors determining or facilitating the formation of NETs remain incompletely understood. Using various actin polymerization and myosin II modulators on neutrophils from healthy individuals, we show that intact F-actin dynamics and myosin II function are essential for NET formation when induced by different stimuli, i.e. phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, monosodium urate crystals and Candida albicans. The role of actin polymerization in NET formation could not be explained by the lack of reactive oxygen species production or granule release, which were normal or enhanced under the given conditions. Neutrophils from patients with very rare inherited actin polymerization defects by either ARPC1B- or MKL1-deficiency also failed to show NETosis. We found that upon inhibition of actin dynamics there is a lack of translocation of NE to the nucleus, which may well explain the impaired NET formation. Collectively, our data illustrate the essential requirement of an intact and active actin polymerization process, as well as active myosin II to enable the release of nuclear DNA by neutrophils during NET formation.


Blood ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yi Ji ◽  
Siyuan Chen ◽  
Jiangyuan Zhou ◽  
Kaiying Yang ◽  
Xuepeng Zhang ◽  
...  

The Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon (KMP) in kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) is characterized by life-threatening thrombocytopenia and consumptive coagulopathy. This study compared the efficacy and safety of sirolimus plus prednisolone versus sirolimus monotherapy as treatment strategies for KHE with KMP in the largest cohort to date. Participants were randomized to receive either sirolimus in combination with a short course of prednisolone or sirolimus monotherapy for at least 12 months. The primary outcome was defined as achievement of a durable platelet response (platelet count >100×109/L) at week 4. Participants completed efficacy assessments 2 years after the initial treatment. At week 4, a durable platelet response was achieved by 35 of 37 patients given sirolimus and prednisolone compared with 24 of 36 patients given sirolimus monotherapy (difference 27.9%; 95% CI, 10.0% to 44.7%). Compared with the sirolimus monotherapy group, the combination treatment group showed improvements in terms of measures of durable platelet responses at all points during the initial 3-week treatment period, median platelet counts during weeks 1 to 4, increased numbers of patients achieving fibrinogen stabilization at week 4, and objective lesion responses at month 12. Patients receiving combination therapy had fewer blood transfusions and a lower total incidence of disease sequelae than patients receiving sirolimus alone. The frequencies of total adverse events and grade 3-4 adverse events during treatment were similar in both groups. The responses seen in patients with KHE with KMP were profound and encouraging, suggesting that sirolimus plus prednisolone should be considered a valid treatment for KHE with KMP. ClinicalTrial.gov, number NCT03188068


Blood ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Leif Ludwig ◽  
Caleb A Lareau ◽  
Erik L. Bao ◽  
Nan Liu ◽  
Taiju Utsugisawa ◽  
...  

Master regulators, such as the hematopoietic transcription factor (TF) GATA1, play an essential role in orchestrating lineage commitment and differentiation. However, the precise mechanisms by which such TFs regulate transcription through interactions with specific cis-regulatory elements remain incompletely understood. Here, we describe a form of congenital hemolytic anemia caused by missense mutations in an intrinsically disordered region of GATA1, with a poorly understood role in transcriptional regulation. Through integrative functional approaches, we demonstrate that these mutations perturb GATA1 transcriptional activity by partially impairing nuclear localization and selectively altering precise chromatin occupancy by GATA1. These alterations in chromatin occupancy and concordant chromatin accessibility changes alter faithful gene expression, with failure to both effectively silence and activate select genes necessary for effective terminal red cell production. We demonstrate how disease-causing mutations can reveal regulatory mechanisms that enable the faithful genomic targeting of master TFs during cellular differentiation.


Blood ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 139 (2) ◽  
pp. 159-160
Author(s):  
Mariana J. Kaplan

Blood ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 139 (2) ◽  
pp. 162-163
Author(s):  
Lisa R. Forbes Satter
Keyword(s):  

Blood ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sylvie Cointe ◽  
Loris Vallier ◽  
Pierre Esnault ◽  
Mathilde Dacos ◽  
Amandine Bonifay ◽  
...  

Microvesicles (MVs) have previously been shown to exert profibrinolytic capacity, which is increased in patients with septic shock (SS) with a favorable outcome. We therefore hypothesized that the plasmin generation capacity (PGC) could confer to MVs a protective effect supported by their capacity to lyse a thrombus, and we investigated the mechanisms involved. Using a MV-PGC kinetic assay, ELISA and flow cytometry, we found that granulocyte MVs (Gran-MVs) from SS patients display a heterogeneous PGC profile driven by the uPA (urokinase)/uPAR system. In vitro, these MVs lyse a thrombus according to their MV-PGC levels in a uPA/uPAR-dependent manner, as shown in a fluorescent clot lysis test and a lysis front retraction assay. Fibrinolytic activators conveyed by MVs contribute to approximately 30% of the plasma plasminogenolytic capacity of SS patients. In a murine model of SS, the injection of high PGC Gran-MVs significantly improved mouse survival and reduced the number of thrombi in vital organs. This was associated with a modification of the mouse coagulation and fibrinolysis properties toward a more fibrinolytic profile. Interestingly, mouse survival was not improved when soluble uPA was injected. Finally, using a multiplex array on plasma from SS patients, we found that neutrophil elastase correlates with the effect of high-PGC-capacity plasma and modulates the Gran-MV plasmin generation capacity by cleaving uPA-PAI-1 complexes. In conclusion, we show that high PGC level displayed by Gran-MVs reduce thrombus formation and improve survival conferring to Gran-MVs a protective role in a murine model of sepsis.


Blood ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 139 (2) ◽  
pp. 154-155
Author(s):  
Anne-Ségolène Cottereau
Keyword(s):  

Blood ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 139 (2) ◽  
pp. 156-157
Author(s):  
Alan J. Warren

Blood ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 139 (2) ◽  
pp. 157-159
Author(s):  
Elaine S. Jaffe ◽  
John K. C. Chan

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