AbstractMyasthenia gravis (MG) is a rare autoimmune neuromuscular disorder. Though MG was diagnosed four centuries ago, its rational management started in 1930s. In the present era, MG is managed by multimodality care including pharmacological agents, plasmapheresis, intravenous immunoglobulins, and surgical thymectomy. Thymectomy has evolved from open trans-sternal to video-assisted thoracoscopic and robotic thymectomy. In this article, the concise history of MG, its clinical features, diagnosis, and management are described.
Objectives: To investigate the clinical features of patients with myasthenia gravis complicated with and without hyperthyroidism.
Methods: A total of 2083 patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) admitted in Center of Treatment of Myasthenia Gravis Hebei Province between January 2013 and July 2020 were retrospectively analyzed and divided into two groups: Group-A and Group-B, with 108 MG patients complicated with hyperthyroidism in Group-A and 1975 MG patients without thyroid disease in Group-B. The age of onset, gender, Osserman classification, acetylcholine receptor antibody and thymus status of the two groups were analyzed in the two groups. Independent-sample t test was used for intra-group comparison, and χ2 test was utilized for comparison of enumeration data. P<0.05 indicates a statistically significant difference.
Results: The age of onset in Group-A was significantly lower than that in Group-B (p=0.000), the number of female patients was significantly higher than that in Group-B (p=0.037), and the level of Achrabs titer was significantly lower than that in Group-B (p=0.000). The incidence of thymoma in Group-A was significantly lower than that in Group-B (p=0.012), while the incidence of thymic hyperplasia was significantly higher than that in Group-B (p=0.000).
Conclusion: Patients with MG complicated with hyperthyroidism are mainly female, with a lower age of onset, a lower level of acetylcholine receptor antibody, a lower incidence of thymoma, and a higher incidence of thymic hyperplasia. The clinical features of such patients are remarkably different from those of MG without thyroid disease.
How to cite this:Wang Y, Qi G, Yang Y. Analysis of clinical features of myasthenia gravis complicated with hyperthyroidism. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.4656
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Background: Paraneoplastic gastroparesis is a gastrointestinal syndrome that rarely precedes a tumor diagnosis. To increase awareness of this rare clinical entity, we present a case of severe gastroparesis, which was later proven to be associated with a thymoma. Case report: A 55-year old man had the sudden onset of severe abdominal cramps and abdominal distension, early satiety with postprandial nausea, acid regurgitation, belching, and flatulence. He lost about 20 pounds. The physical and imaging examination revealed stomach distension, gastroparesis, and the presence of a solid mass in the anterior mediastinum. Radical surgery was performed to remove the thymoma and, given the high value of Mib-1, the patient was submitted to postoperative chest radiation therapy. After thymectomy, a diagnosis of paraneoplastic myasthenia gravis with subacute autonomic failure was made. Conclusion: Autoimmune gastroparesis should be considered as a potential paraneoplastic syndrome in patients with thymoma, myasthenia gravis, and delayed gastric emptying in the absence of mechanical obstruction.
BackgroundIgG4 is associated with two emerging groups of rare diseases: 1) IgG4 autoimmune diseases (IgG4-AID) and 2) IgG4-related diseases (IgG4-RLD). Anti-neuronal IgG4-AID include MuSK myasthenia gravis, LGI1- and Caspr2-encephalitis and autoimmune nodo-/paranodopathies (CNTN1/Caspr1 or NF155 antibodies). IgG4-RLD is a multiorgan disease hallmarked by tissue-destructive fibrotic lesions with lymphocyte and IgG4 plasma cell infiltrates and increased serum IgG4 concentrations. It is unclear whether IgG4-AID and IgG4-RLD share relevant clinical and immunopathological features.MethodsWe collected and analyzed clinical, serological, and histopathological data in 50 patients with anti-neuronal IgG4-AID and 19 patients with IgG4-RLD.ResultsA significantly higher proportion of IgG4-RLD patients had serum IgG4 elevation when compared to IgG4-AID patients (52.63% vs. 16%, p = .004). Moreover, those IgG4-AID patients with elevated IgG4 did not meet the diagnostic criteria of IgG4-RLD, and their autoantibody titers did not correlate with their serum IgG4 concentrations. In addition, patients with IgG4-RLD were negative for anti-neuronal/neuromuscular autoantibodies and among these patients, men showed a significantly higher propensity for IgG4 elevation, when compared to women (p = .005). Last, a kidney biopsy from a patient with autoimmune paranodopathy due to CNTN1/Caspr1-complex IgG4 autoantibodies and concomitant nephrotic syndrome did not show fibrosis or IgG4+ plasma cells, which are diagnostic hallmarks of IgG4-RLD.ConclusionOur observations suggest that anti-neuronal IgG4-AID and IgG4-RLD are most likely distinct disease entities.
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease affecting the neuromuscular junction, often associated with other autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis present an increased prevalence of myasthenia gravis compared to the general population. While these two diseases share some therapeutic options, such as glucocorticoids, methotrexate, and rituximab, there are no guidelines for treating concomitant disease. We aim to review the available evidence and to discuss the efficacy and safety of the therapeutic options in patients with rheumatoid arthritis associated with myasthenia gravis.
We described three patients with rheumatoid arthritis associated with myasthenia gravis and we performed a systematic review of the associated literature.
A 48-year-old man and two women (48 and 55 years old) with concomitant diagnoses of active rheumatoid arthritis and well-controlled myasthenia gravis are described. They were treated with methotrexate, leflunomide, upadacitinib, and adalimumab. None of them experienced changes in their myasthenic symptoms. We found 9 additional cases from our literature review. Methotrexate, rituximab, upadacitinib, diphenyl sulfone, auranofin, and loxoprofen sodium did not show an impact on the seven patients with previously well-controlled myasthenia. Glucocorticoids, methotrexate, and rituximab proved effective in active myasthenia gravis and arthritis. Conflicting data emerged for Tumor-necrosis factor inhibitors.
Although the available evidence remains scarce, we consider glucocorticoids, methotrexate, and rituximab as safe and effective options. The role of tumor-necrosis factor inhibitors remains uncertain. Eventually, Janus Kinase inhibitors are a novel interesting option for these patients.
Key Points• To date, the only evidence on the treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and concomitant myasthenia gravis derives from case reports.• Based on the review of the available case reports and on the cases we described, we consider glucocorticoids, methotrexate, and rituximab as safe and effective options, while the role of Tumor-necrosis factor inhibitors remains uncertain.• Based on the cases we described, Janus Kinase inhibitors are a novel interesting option for patients with concomitant rheumatoid arthritis and myasthenia gravis.
Cervical thymoma is a rare thymic epithelial neoplasm. Evidence supports an increased risk of second primary malignancies in patients with thymoma. We report a rare case of a patient with synchronous cervical thymoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
An 81-year-old Thai woman was referred for further treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. While waiting for a review of the original pathological examination of a mass in the left neck and a mass in the left arm, the attending physician noticed ptosis of the upper eyelids, which was proven to be caused by myasthenia gravis. The final pathology review confirmed that the arm mass was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, but the neck mass was cervical thymoma, type B1, not diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Interestingly, the patient reported that the arm mass had been present for 2 years, while the neck mass had grown rapidly in the past month. A diagnostic challenge had arisen when the initial morphological evaluation was not performed with care, causing the first pathologist to misinterpret that the neoplastic cells in both masses were the same.
Concurrent cervical thymoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were proven after a careful pathology review, leading to better clinical management.
Background Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease which can impact pregnancy. Methods Six databases were systematically searched for studies with at least five subjects reporting pregnancy outcomes for women with myasthenia gravis in pregnancy. Assessment of bias was performed for all included studies. Forty-eight cases from our own centre were also included in the analysis. Results In total, 32 publications met inclusion criteria for systematic review, for a total of 33 unique data sets including 48 cases from our institution. Outcome data was available for 824 pregnancies. Spontaneous vaginal delivery occurred in 56.3% of pregnancies. Overall risk of myasthenia gravis exacerbation was 33.8% with a 6.4% risk of myasthenic crisis in pregnancy and 8.2% postpartum. The incidence risk of transient neonatal myasthenia gravis was 13.0%. Conclusions The current systematic review provides the best estimates of risk currently available to aid in counselling women with myasthenia gravis in pregnancy.