On the role of estrogen receptors and liver X receptors (LXRs) in lipid metabolism

2004 ◽  
Vol 2004 (Spring) ◽  
Jan-�ke Gustafsson
2020 ◽  
Vol 53 ◽  
pp. 18-26 ◽  
Sophia Leussink ◽  
Irene Aranda-Pardos ◽  
Noelia A-Gonzalez

2015 ◽  
Vol 43 (4) ◽  
pp. 752-757 ◽  
Kirsty E. Waddington ◽  
Elizabeth C. Jury ◽  
Inés Pineda-Torra

The liver X receptors (LXRs), LXRα and LXRβ, are transcription factors with well-established roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism and cholesterol homeostasis. In addition, LXRs influence innate and adaptive immunity, including responses to inflammatory stimuli, proliferation and differentiation, migration, apoptosis and survival. However, the majority of work describing the role of LXRs in immune cells has been carried out in mouse models, and there are a number of known species-specific differences concerning LXR function. Here we review what is known about the role of LXRs in human immune cells, demonstrating the importance of these receptors in the integration of lipid metabolism and immune function, but also highlighting the need for a better understanding of the species, isoform, and cell-type specific effects of LXR activation.

2018 ◽  
Sheba Jarvis ◽  
Lee Gethings ◽  
Raffaella Gadeleta ◽  
Emmanuelle Claude ◽  
Robert Winston ◽  

2019 ◽  
Vol 20 (21) ◽  
pp. 5379 ◽  
Sheba Jarvis ◽  
Catherine Williamson ◽  
Charlotte L Bevan

Liver X receptors (LXRs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors acting as ‘cholesterol sensors’ to regulate lipid homeostasis in cells. The two isoforms, LXRα (NR1H3) and LXRβ (NR1H2), are differentially expressed, with the former expressed predominantly in metabolically active tissues and the latter more ubiquitously. Both are activated by oxidised cholesterol metabolites, endogenously produced oxysterols. LXRs have important roles in lipid metabolism and inflammation, plus a number of newly emerging roles. They are implicated in regulating lipid balance in normal male reproductive function and may provide a link between male infertility and lipid disorders and/or obesity. Studies from Lxr knockout mouse models provide compelling evidence to support this. More recently published data suggest distinct and overlapping roles of the LXR isoforms in the testis and recent evidence of a role for LXRs in human male fertility. This review summarises the current literature and explores the likely link between LXR, lipid metabolism and male fertility as part of a special issue on Liver X receptors in International Journal of Molecular Sciences.

2009 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 129-136 ◽  
Chiara Gabbi ◽  
Margaret Warner ◽  
Jan-Åke Gustafsson

Abstract Liver X receptors, LXRα and LXRβ, are nuclear receptors belonging to the large family of transcription factors. After activation by oxysterols, LXRs play a central role in the control of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism as well as inflammation. The role of LXRα has been extensively studied, particularly in the liver and macrophages. In the liver it prevents cholesterol accumulation by increasing bile acid synthesis and secretion into the bile through ATP-binding cassette G5/G8 transporters, whereas in macrophages it increases cholesterol reverse transport. The function of LXRβ is still under investigation with most of the current knowledge coming from the study of phenotypes of LXRβ−/− mice. With these mice new emerging roles for LXRβ have been demonstrated in the pathogenesis of diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and chronic pancreatitis. The present review will focus on the abnormalities described so far in LXRβ−/− mice and the insight gained into the possible roles of LXRβ in human diseases.

2002 ◽  
Vol 277 (43) ◽  
pp. 40722-40728 ◽  
George E. O. Muscat ◽  
Brandee L. Wagner ◽  
Jinzhao Hou ◽  
Rajendra K. Tangirala ◽  
Eric D. Bischoff ◽  

PLoS Biology ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 18 (12) ◽  
pp. e3000948
Laura Bousset ◽  
Amandine Septier ◽  
Julio Bunay ◽  
Allison Voisin ◽  
Rachel Guiton ◽  

Chronic inflammation is now a well-known precursor for cancer development. Infectious prostatitis are the most common causes of prostate inflammation, but emerging evidence points the role of metabolic disorders as a potential source of cancer-related inflammation. Although the widely used treatment for prostate cancer based on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) effectively decreases tumor size, it also causes profound alterations in immune tumor microenvironment within the prostate. Here, we demonstrate that prostates of a mouse model invalidated for nuclear receptors liver X receptors (LXRs), crucial lipid metabolism and inflammation integrators, respond in an unexpected way to androgen deprivation. Indeed, we observed profound alterations in immune cells composition, which was associated with chronic inflammation of the prostate. This was explained by the recruitment of phagocytosis-deficient macrophages leading to aberrant hyporesponse to castration. This phenotypic alteration was sufficient to allow prostatic neoplasia. Altogether, these data suggest that ADT and inflammation resulting from metabolic alterations interact to promote aberrant proliferation of epithelial prostate cells and development of neoplasia. This raises the question of the benefit of ADT for patients with metabolic disorders.

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