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Antioxidants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 167
Sulagna Dutta ◽  
Pallav Sengupta ◽  
Shubhadeep Roychoudhury ◽  
Srikumar Chakravarthi ◽  
Chee Woon Wang ◽  

The pathophysiology of male infertility involves various interlinked endogenous pathways. About 50% of the cases of infertility in men are idiopathic, and oxidative stress (OS) reportedly serves as a central mechanism in impairing male fertility parameters. The endogenous antioxidant system operates to conserve the seminal redox homeostasis required for normal male reproduction. OS strikes when a generation of seminal reactive oxygen species (ROS) overwhelms endogenous antioxidant capacity. Thus, antioxidant treatment finds remarkable relevance in the case of idiopathic male infertility or subfertility. However, due to lack of proper detection of OS in male infertility, use of antioxidant(s) in some cases may be arbitrary or lead to overuse and induction of ‘reductive stress’. Moreover, inflammation is closely linked to OS and may establish a vicious loop that is capable of disruption to male reproductive tissues. The result is exaggeration of cellular damage and disruption of male reproductive tissues. Therefore, limitations of antioxidant therapy in treating male infertility are the failure in the selection of specific treatments targeting inflammation and OS simultaneously, two of the core mechanisms of male infertility. The present review aims to elucidate the antioxidant paradox in male infertility treatment, from the viewpoints of both induction of reductive stress as well as overlooking the inflammatory consequences.

Omoloro Adeleke ◽  
Farrukh Gill ◽  
Ramesh Krishnan

The Limb Body Wall Complex (LBWC) aka. Body Stalk Syndrome is an uncommon congenital disorder characterized by severe malformations of limb, thorax, and abdomen, characterized by the presence of thoracoschisis, abdominoschisis, limb defects, and exencephaly. This condition is extremely rare with an incidence of 1 per 14,000 and 1 per 31,000 pregnancies in large epidemiologic studies. Majority of these malformed fetuses end up with spontaneous abortions. We present this rare case with occurrence in a preterm infant of 35 weeks gestation. Our report highlights majority of the clinical presentations as reported in previous literature, but the significant pathological findings of absent genitalia and malformed genitourinary, anorectal malformations make this case presentation an even more rare occurrence. Infant karyotyping was normal male and there is no specific underlying genetic correlation in this condition which has fatal prognosis.

2022 ◽  
Maxwell Claef Hakun ◽  
Janet Rossant ◽  
Bin Gu

Spermiogenesis, the post-meiotic stage of sperm development, is critical for normal male fertility. Many genetic defects and environmental assaults that affect spermiogenesis have been shown to be associated with male infertility. In addition, this later stage of spermatogenesis has been proposed to be an ideal target for male contraceptive development. The mouse is a widely used model for studying the mechanisms of spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. However, due to the complexity and the asynchronous nature of spermatogenesis in adult testis, it is challenging to study molecular processes restricted to this specific developmental stage. It is also challenging to monitor the spermiogenesic activity in live mice, which is critical for screening for fertility-modulating interventions such as contraceptives. Here we reported the development of a Nutm1-T2A- luciferase 2(Luc2)-tandem Tomato(TdTomato) knock-in reporter mouse model that specifically labels post-meiotic spermatids. Homozygous reporter mice are healthy and fully fertile, demonstrating no interference with the normal functions of the Nutm1 gene by the reporter. We demonstrated the visualization of post-meiotic spermatids by fluorescent imaging of the TdTomato reporter in both live and fixed testis tissues. We also demonstrated bioluminescence imaging of Nutm1 expressing cells in live mice. The Nutm1-T2A-Luc2TdTomato reporter mouse can serve as a valuable tool for studying spermiogenesis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 71 (6) ◽  
pp. 2224-27
Aysha Khan ◽  
Zunera Shahbaz ◽  
Shagufta Yousaf ◽  
Abeera Ahmed ◽  
Fatima Sana ◽  

Objective: To study the patterns and distribution of various abnormal semen parameters in infertile males. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology, Combined Military Hospital, Karachi, from Nov 2019 to Oct 2020. Methodology: The study included 364 patients who presented with primary and secondary infertility. Consecutive convenient sampling was done. Semen analysis was performed using World Health Organization latest guidelines. Samples were categorized as normospermia, azoospermia, oligospermia, asthenozoospermia and necrospermia. Results: The study comprised of 364 samples of infertile males. Normal sperm count was observed in 317 (87%) males, azoospermia in 28 (7.6%) and oligospermia in 19 (5.2%) males. Low ejaculated volume and higher non-motile sperms were noted in oligospermia samples in comparison with normospermia samples. Asthenozoospermia was observed in 102 (28%) and oligoasthenospermia was noted in 15 (4.1%) samples. Conclusion: Good quality semen analysis is a corner stone to diagnose the cause of male infertility.Sperm concentration and motility are the important markers of normal male reproductive system and are related to each other.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 429-434
Parashuram Teli ◽  
Aruna Kanase ◽  

In our earlier studies on CCl4 induced acute toxicity model (CCl4 3ml/kg body wt). Abhrak bhasma protects fatty degeneration of liver and associated nephrotoxicity in male albino rats. It had shown to function through production and management of free radicals (Teli and Kanase, 2020a, b). To study further the paths of Abhrak Bhasma mediated protection of acute hepatotoxicity and associated nephrotoxicity, liver, kidney and serum lipid contents were studied in present work. It shows no lipid accumulation in liver or kidney of normal rats by Abhrak Bhasma (10, 20, 30 and 40mg doses). But a same dose of silica in pure form (SiO2) is hepato and nephrotoxic in high doses in normal male albino rat. In acutely intoxicated rat also all the doses of Abhrak Bhasma influenced lipid contents of liver, kidney and serum show the protection of liver from fatty degeneration and also associated nephrotoxicity. Doses 30 and 40mg normalized the contents from liver, kidney and serum. The results are discussed to reveals the probable mode of action of Abhrak Bhasma.

Life ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 10
Pallav Sengupta ◽  
Sulagna Dutta ◽  
Ivan Rolland Karkada ◽  
Suresh V. Chinni

Male infertility is approaching a concerning prevalence worldwide, and inflicts various impacts on the affected couple. The hormonal assessment is a vital component of male fertility evaluation as endocrine disorders are markedly reversible causatives of male infertility. Precise hormonal regulations are prerequisites to maintain normal male fertility parameters. The core male reproductive event, spermatogenesis, entails adequate testosterone concentration, which is produced via steroidogenesis in the Leydig cells. Physiological levels of both the gonadotropins are needed to achieve normal testicular functions. The hypothalamus-derived gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is considered the supreme inducer of the gonadotropins and thereby the subsequent endocrine reproductive events. This hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis may be modulated by the thyroidal or adrenal axis and numerous other reproductive and nonreproductive hormones. Disruption of this fine hormonal balance and their crosstalk leads to a spectrum of endocrinopathies, inducing subfertility or infertility in men. This review article will discuss the most essential endocrinopathies associated with male factor infertility to aid precise understanding of the endocrine disruptions-mediated male infertility to encourage further research to reveal the detailed etiology of male infertility and perhaps to develop more customized therapies for endocrinopathy-induced male infertility.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-4
Angie Carolina Carreño-Martínez ◽  
Victor Clemente Mendoza Rojas ◽  
Julian Arturo Gil Forero ◽  
Victor Hugo Figueroa ◽  
Gustavo Adolfo Contreras-García

Mixed gonadal dysgenesis is the most common chromosomal abnormality with ambiguous genitalia, defined as a 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. It can present with a normal male phenotype, ambiguous genitalia, or features of Turner syndrome. A 14-year-old patient was referred to the genetics clinic due to hypospadia, cryptorchidism, and aortic coarctation. During the physical examination, short stature, webbed neck, and Blashko lines on his back were noted. He had a previous karyotype reported as normal. However, due to an inadequate evolution and a low resolution on the previous test, a higher resolution karyotype was performed, identifying a mosaicism 45,X/46,XY. A multidisciplinary board examined the case, and follow-up with tumor markers was carried out to evaluate the presence of gonadoblastoma, one of the main complications in these patients. Treatment should be transdisciplinary and focused on the particular characteristics of each case. Other treatment alternatives include corrective surgery and hormonal therapy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (4) ◽  
pp. 77-85
S. L. Kovarsky ◽  
Yu. V. Petrukhina ◽  
S. P. Blokh ◽  
A. I. Zakharov ◽  
A. A. Bebenina

Disorder of sex determination is a condition associated with clinical and biochemical discrepancy between genetic, gonadal, and phenotypic sex of a child requiring detailed examination for final selection of sex. Indications for sex determination can arise both in infancy and during puberty. Several conditions pertaining to abnormal sex differentiation are manifested as normal male genitalia with Mullerian ducts derivatives.The study objective is to present clinical observations of children with persistent Mullerian duct syndrome.The study presents 2 clinical cases of children with disorders of sex determination. Both children were initially hospitalized at the surgical facility with cryptorchism diagnosis, Mullerian duct derivatives were found intraoperatively. During examination of the children (karyotyping, histological and immunohistochemical examination) in one case persistent Mullerian duct syndrome was diagnosed, in the other - chromosomal abnormality of sex formation (45,X/46,XY), mixed dysgenesis of the gonads.If Mullerian duct derivatives are found during diagnostic laparoscopy, resection biopsy of the ambiguous gonad and intraoperative single-step urethrocystoscopy for visualization of the seminal colliculus and catherization of the uterus for its identification from the abdominal side should be performed. Further examination includes karyotyping, hormonal examination, consultations with an endocrinologist and a geneticist, and genetic examination if necessary.

Veronica Bertini ◽  
Fulvia Baldinotti ◽  
Nina Tyutyusheva ◽  
Camillo Rosano ◽  
Cinzia Cosini ◽  

Background. 46,XX disorders of sex development are rare. Approximately, 90% of XX males are SRY-positive, while testicular development in the absence of SRY takes place in a minority. Methods: A boy with 46,XX karyotype (SRY-negative; absence of SOX9 duplications) was investigated by targeted Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), and Comparative Genomic Hybridization array (CGH-array). Results: The boy had normal male phenotype and normal prepubertal values of testicular hormones. He presented a heterozygous duplication of 49.626 bp, encompassing exons 2 and 3 of DMRT1. The result was arr[GRCh37] 9p24.3(845893_895518)x3. Since both breakpoints are harbored in the intronic regions, the duplication does not stop or shift the coding frame. Additional known pathogenic or uncertain variants in pro-testis gene cascade were not identified. Conclusions: This study report a boy with 46,XX testicular disorder of sex differentiation, showing a de novo partial intragenic duplication of DMRT1. This intragenic duplication may result in a gain of function, acting as primary pro-testis gene (or anti-ovary gene) in a 46,XX human foetus and permitting normal pre-pubertal endocrine testis function.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Areerat Hnoonual ◽  
Charunee Jankittunpaiboon ◽  
Pornprot Limprasert

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex disorder with a heterogeneous etiology. Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is recognized as the most common single gene mutation associated with ASD. FXS patients show some autistic behaviors and may be difficult to distinguish at a young age from autistic children. However, there have been no published reports on the prevalence of FXS in ASD patients in Thailand. In this study, we present a pilot study to analyze the CGG repeat sizes of the FMR1 gene in Thai autistic patients. We screened 202 unrelated Thai patients (168 males and 34 females) with nonsyndromic ASD and 212 normal controls using standard FXS molecular diagnosis techniques. The distributions of FMR1 CGG repeat sizes in the ASD and normal control groups were similar, with the two most common alleles having 29 and 30 CGG repeats, followed by an allele with 36 CGG repeats. No FMR1 full mutations or premutations were found in either ASD individuals or the normal controls. Interestingly, three ASD male patients with high normal CGG and intermediate CGG repeats (44, 46, and 53 CGG repeats) were identified, indicating that the prevalence of FMR1 intermediate alleles in Thai ASD patients was approximately 1% while these alleles were absent in the normal male controls. Our study indicates that CGG repeat expansions of the FMR1 gene may not be a common genetic cause of nonsyndromic ASD in Thai patients. However, further studies for mutations other than the CGG expansion in the FMR1 gene are required to get a better information on FXS prevalence in Thai ASD patients.

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