Immune Cells
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2021 ◽  
FangFang Li ◽  
Chun Huang ◽  
LingXiao Qiu ◽  
Ping Li ◽  
guojun zhang

Abstract Purpose: The immunotherapy of lung adenocarcinoma has received more and more attention. Different immune cells can affect other metabolic genes and lifespan, and cell metabolism directly regulates immune cell functions. Therefore, it is crucial to explore the role of immune-related metabolic genes in lung adenocarcinoma. Methods: This study screened and studied immune-related metabolic genes from three aspects. First of all, we divide them into three categories based on different immune characteristics and research immunity and clinical pathology. Secondly, we used LASSO regression analysis to screen the immune-related metabolic genes and constructed the clinical prediction model for the screened genes. Finally, we selected the intersection of immune metabolism genes highly expressed in tumor sites and immune metabolism genes that are negatively related to survival and obtained potential genes. Results: We first identified immune-related metabolic genes and immune cells that may affect tumor progression in lung cancer. Then, through LASSO regression analysis, we screened out nine hub genes (TK1, TCN1, CAV1, ACMSD, HS3ST2, HS3ST5, AMN, ADRA2C, ACOXL) and constructed a prognostic model. Finally, through the screening of tumor-related immune metabolism genes, we obtained five hub genes (HMMR, PFKP, RRM2, TCN1 and TK1). Our qRT-PCR result also showed that RRM2 positively correlates with CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, CDK8.Conclusion: We conduct a comprehensive analysis of the immune infiltration of the tumor microenvironment of lung cancer, and finally determined RRM2 as a promising immune metabolism checkpoint for lung adenocarcinoma based on the high correlation of RRM2 with immune cells and CDK family.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Indumathi Manoharan ◽  
Puttur D. Prasad ◽  
Muthusamy Thangaraju ◽  
Santhakumar Manicassamy

For decades, lactate has been considered an innocuous bystander metabolite of cellular metabolism. However, emerging studies show that lactate acts as a complex immunomodulatory molecule that controls innate and adaptive immune cells’ effector functions. Thus, recent advances point to lactate as an essential and novel signaling molecule that shapes innate and adaptive immune responses in the intestine and systemic sites. Here, we review these recent advances in the context of the pleiotropic effects of lactate in regulating diverse functions of immune cells in the tissue microenvironment and under pathological conditions.

Blood ◽  
2021 ◽  
Melissa M Lee-Sundlov ◽  
Robert Thomas Burns ◽  
Taylor Olmsted Kim ◽  
Renata Grozovsky ◽  
Silvia Giannini ◽  

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a common platelet disorder in pediatric patients. Pediatric and adult ITP have been associated with sialic acid alterations, but the pathophysiology of ITP remains elusive, and ITP is often a diagnosis of exclusion. Our analysis of pediatric ITP plasma samples showed increased anti-Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TF-antigen) antibody representation, suggesting increased exposure of the typically sialylated and cryptic TF-antigen in these patients. The O-glycan sialyltransferase St3gal1 add sialic acid specifically on the TF-antigen. To understand if TF-antigen exposure associates with thrombocytopenia, we generated a mouse model with targeted deletion of St3gal1 in megakaryocytes (MK) (St3gal1MK-/-). TF-antigen exposure was restricted to MKs and resulted in thrombocytopenia. Deletion of Jak3 in St3gal1MK-/- mice normalized platelet counts implicating involvement of immune cells. Interferon-producing Siglec H-positive bone marrow (BM) immune cells engaged with O-glycan sialic acid moieties to regulate type I interferon (IFN-I) secretion and platelet release (thrombopoiesis), as evidenced by partially normalized platelet count following and inhibition of interferon and Siglec H receptors. Single cell RNAseq determined that TF-antigen exposure by MKs primed St3gal1MK-/- BM immune cells to release IFN-I. Single cell RNAseq further revealed a new population of immune cells with a plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC)-like signature and concomitant upregulation of immunoglobulin re-arrangement gene transcripts Igkc and Ighm, suggesting additional immune regulatory mechanisms. Thus, aberrant TF-antigen moieties, often found in pathological conditions, regulate immune cells and thrombopoiesis in the BM, leading to reduced platelet count.-

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sheng Tu ◽  
Xu Lin ◽  
Jili Qiu ◽  
Jiaqi Zhou ◽  
Hui Wang ◽  

Glioblastoma is considered to be the most malignant disease of the central nervous system, and it is often associated with poor survival. The immune microenvironment plays a key role in the development and treatment of glioblastoma. Among the different types of immune cells, tumor-associated microglia/macrophages (TAM/Ms) and CD8-positive (CD8+) T cells are the predominant immune cells, as well as the most active ones. Current studies have suggested that interaction between TAM/Ms and CD8+ T cells have numerous potential targets that will allow them to overcome malignancy in glioblastoma. In this review, we summarize the mechanism and function of TAM/Ms and CD8+ T cells involved in glioblastoma, as well as update on the relationship and crosstalk between these two cell types, to determine whether this association alters the immune status during glioblastoma development and affects optimal treatment. We focus on the molecular factors that are crucial to this interaction, and the role that this crosstalk plays in the biological processes underlying glioblastoma treatment, particularly with regard to immune therapy. We also discuss novel therapeutic targets that can aid in resolving reticular connections between TAM/Ms and CD8+ T cells, including depletion and reprogramming TAM/Ms and novel TAM/Ms-CD8+ T cell cofactors with potential translational usage. In addition, we highlight the challenges and discuss future perspectives of this crosstalk between TAM/Ms and CD8+ T cells.

eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Hyeogsun Kwon ◽  
Mubasher Mohammed ◽  
Oscar Franzén ◽  
Johan Ankarklev ◽  
Ryan Smith

Mosquito immune cells, known as hemocytes, are integral to cellular and humoral responses that limit pathogen survival and mediate immune priming. However, without reliable cell markers and genetic tools, studies of mosquito immune cells have been limited to morphological observations, leaving several aspects of their biology uncharacterized. Here, we use single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to characterize mosquito immune cells, demonstrating an increased complexity to previously defined prohemocyte, oenocytoid, and granulocyte subtypes. Through functional assays relying on phagocytosis, phagocyte depletion, and RNA-FISH experiments, we define markers to accurately distinguish immune cell subtypes and provide evidence for immune cell maturation and differentiation. In addition, gene-silencing experiments demonstrate the importance of lozenge in defining the mosquito oenocytoid cell fate. Together, our scRNA-seq analysis provides an important foundation for future studies of mosquito immune cell biology and a valuable resource for comparative invertebrate immunology.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (15) ◽  
pp. 8076
Pio Conti ◽  
Fabrizio E. Pregliasco ◽  
Rosa G. Bellomo ◽  
Carla E. Gallenga ◽  
Alessandro Caraffa ◽  

Psoriasis (PS) is a skin disease with autoimmune features mediated by immune cells, which typically presents inflammatory erythematous plaques, and is associated with many comorbidities. PS exhibits excessive keratinocyte proliferation, and a high number of immune cells, including macrophages, neutrophils, Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes, and mast cells (MCs). MCs are of hematopoietic origin, derived from bone marrow cells, which migrate, mature, and reside in vascularized tissues. They can be activated by antigen-provoking overexpression of proinflammatory cytokines, and release a number of mediators including interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-33. IL-1, released by activated keratinocytes and MCs, stimulates skin macrophages to release IL-36—a powerful proinflammatory IL-1 family member. IL-36 mediates both innate and adaptive immunity, including chronic proinflammatory diseases such as psoriasis. Suppression of IL-36 could result in a dramatic improvement in the treatment of psoriasis. IL-36 is inhibited by IL-36Ra, which binds to IL-36 receptor ligands, but suppression can also occur by binding IL-38 to the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R). IL-38 specifically binds only to IL-36R, and inhibits human mononuclear cells stimulated with IL-36 in vitro, sharing the effect with IL-36Ra. Here, we report that inflammation in psoriasis is mediated by IL-1 generated by MCs—a process that activates macrophages to secrete proinflammatory IL-36 inhibited by IL-38. IL-37 belongs to the IL-1 family, and broadly suppresses innate inflammation via IL-1 inhibition. IL-37, in murine models of inflammatory arthritis, causes the suppression of joint inflammation through the inhibition of IL-1. Therefore, it is pertinent to think that IL-37 can play an inhibitory role in inflammatory psoriasis. In this article, we confirm that IL-38 and IL-37 cytokines emerge as inhibitors of inflammation in psoriasis, and hold promise as an innovative therapeutic tool.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Charlotte Martinat ◽  
Arthur Cormier ◽  
Joëlle Tobaly-Tapiero ◽  
Noé Palmic ◽  
Nicoletta Casartelli ◽  

AbstractSAMHD1 is a cellular triphosphohydrolase (dNTPase) proposed to inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcription in non-cycling immune cells by limiting the supply of the dNTP substrates. Yet, phosphorylation of T592 downregulates SAMHD1 antiviral activity, but not its dNTPase function, implying that additional mechanisms contribute to viral restriction. Here, we show that SAMHD1 is SUMOylated on residue K595, a modification that relies on the presence of a proximal SUMO-interacting motif (SIM). Loss of K595 SUMOylation suppresses the restriction activity of SAMHD1, even in the context of the constitutively active phospho-ablative T592A mutant but has no impact on dNTP depletion. Conversely, the artificial fusion of SUMO2 to a non-SUMOylatable inactive SAMHD1 variant restores its antiviral function, a phenotype that is reversed by the phosphomimetic T592E mutation. Collectively, our observations clearly establish that lack of T592 phosphorylation cannot fully account for the restriction activity of SAMHD1. We find that SUMOylation of K595 is required to stimulate a dNTPase-independent antiviral activity in non-cycling immune cells, an effect that is antagonized by cyclin/CDK-dependent phosphorylation of T592 in cycling cells.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Ting Zhou ◽  
Ping Yang ◽  
Sanyuan Tang ◽  
Zhongshan Zhu ◽  
Xiaobing Li ◽  

Aims. Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) cells could escape from the monitoring of immune cells and metastasize rapidly through immune escape. Therefore, we aimed to develop a method to predict the prognosis of LUAD patients based on immune checkpoints and their associated genes, thus providing guidance for LUAD treatment. Methods. Gene sequencing data were downloaded from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and analyzed by R software and R Bioconductor software package. Based on immune checkpoint genes, kmdist clustering in ConsensusClusterPlus R software package was utilized to classify LUAD. CIBERSORT was used to quantify the abundance of immune cells in LUAD samples. LM22 signature was performed to distinguish 22 phenotypes of human infiltrating immune cells. Gene set variation analysis (GSVA) was performed on immune checkpoint cluster and immune checkpoint score using GSVA R software package. The risk score was calculated by LASSO regression coefficient. Gene Ontology (GO), Hallmark, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis were performed. PROC was performed to generate the ROC curve and calculate the area under the curve (AUC). Results. According to the immune checkpoint, LUAD was classified into clusters 1 and 2. Survival rate, immune infiltration patterns, TMB, and immune score were significantly different between the two clusters. Functional prediction showed that the functions of cluster 1 focused on apoptosis, JAK/STAT signaling pathway, TNF-α/NFκB signaling pathway, and STAT5 signaling pathway. The risk score model was constructed based on nine genes associated with immune checkpoints. Survival analysis and ROC analysis showed that patients with high-risk score had poor prognosis. The risk score was significantly correlated with cancer status (with tumor), male proportion, status, tobacco intake, and cancer stage. With the increase of the risk score, the enrichment of 22 biological functions increased, such as p53 signaling pathway. The signature was verified in IMvigor immunotherapy dataset with excellent diagnostic accuracy. Conclusion. We established a nine-gene signature based on immune checkpoints, which may contribute to the diagnosis, prognosis, and clinical treatment of LUAD.

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