Peroxisome Proliferator
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Livers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (4) ◽  
pp. 201-220
Carolina Vieira Campos ◽  
Caio Jordão Teixeira ◽  
Tanyara Baliani Payolla ◽  
Amanda Rabello Crisma ◽  
Gilson Masahiro Murata ◽  

In the present study we investigated the participation of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) in the metabolic programming of newborn rats exposed in utero to dexamethasone (DEX). On the 21st day of life, fasted offspring born to DEX-treated mothers displayed increased conversion of pyruvate into glucose with simultaneous upregulation of PEPCK (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) and G6Pase (glucose-6-phosphatase). Increased oxidative phosphorylation, higher ATP/ADP ratio and mitochondrial biogenesis and lower pyruvate levels were also found in the progeny of DEX-treated mothers. On the other hand, the 21-day-old progeny of DEX-treated mothers had increased hepatic triglycerides (TAG) and lower CPT-1 activity when subjected to short-term fasting. At the mechanistic level, rats exposed in utero to DEX exhibited increased hepatic PGC-1α protein content with lower miR-29a-c expression. Increased PGC-1α content was concurrent with increased association to HNF-4α and NRF1 and reduced PPARα expression. The data presented herein reveal that changes in the transcription machinery in neonatal liver of rats born to DEX-treated mothers leads to an inflexible metabolic response to fasting. Such programming is hallmarked by increased oxidative phosphorylation of pyruvate with impaired FFA oxidation and hepatic TAG accumulation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Wenjun Luo ◽  
Diao He ◽  
Jianhao Zhang ◽  
Zida Ma ◽  
Keling Chen ◽  

Angiogenesis is an important mechanism underlying the development and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and has emerged as a therapeutic target for metastatic CRC (mCRC). Our recent studies found that Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ/D (PPARδ) regulates vascular endothelial growth factor A(VEGFA) secretion and the sensitivity to bevacizumab in CRC. However, its exact effect and underlying mechanisms remain unidentified. In this study, we showed that PPARδ expression was inversely associated with the microvascular density in human CRC tissues. Knockdown of PPARδ enhanced VEGFA expression in HCT116 cells and HUVEC angiogenesis in vitro; these phenomena were replicated in the experimental in vivo studies. By tandem mass tag (TMT)-labeling proteomics and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) analyses, endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductase 1 alpha (ERO1A) was screened and predicted as a target gene of PPARδ. This was verified by exploring the effect of coregulation of PPARδ and ERO1A on the VEGFA expression in HCT116 cells. The results revealed that PPARδ induced VEGFA by interacting with ERO1A. In conclusion, our results suggest that knockdown of PPARδ can promote CRC angiogenesis by upregulating VEGFA through ERO1A. This pathway may be a potential target for mCRC treatment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (20) ◽  
pp. 4666
Yohei Tomita ◽  
Deokho Lee ◽  
Kazuo Tsubota ◽  
Kazuno Negishi ◽  
Toshihide Kurihara

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a complication of diabetes and one of the leading causes of vision loss worldwide. Despite extensive efforts to reduce visual impairment, the prevalence of DR is still increasing. The initial pathophysiology of DR includes damage to vascular endothelial cells and loss of pericytes. Ensuing hypoxic responses trigger the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other pro-angiogenic factors. At present, the most effective treatment for DR and diabetic macular edema (DME) is the control of blood glucose levels. More advanced cases require laser, anti-VEGF therapy, steroid, and vitrectomy. Pan-retinal photocoagulation for non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) is well established and has demonstrated promising outcomes for preventing the progressive stage of DR. Furthermore, the efficacy of laser therapies such as grid and subthreshold diode laser micropulse photocoagulation (SDM) for DME has been reported. Vitrectomy has been performed for vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachment for patients with PDR. In addition, anti-VEGF treatment has been widely used for DME, and recently its potential to prevent the progression of PDR has been remarked. Even with these treatments, many patients with DR lose their vision and suffer from potential side effects. Thus, we need alternative treatments to address these limitations. In recent years, the relationship between DR, lipid metabolism, and inflammation has been featured. Research in diabetic animal models points to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) activation in cellular metabolism and inflammation by oral fenofibrate and/or pemafibrate as a promising target for DR. In this paper, we review the status of existing therapies, summarize PPARα activation therapies for DR, and discuss their potentials as promising DR treatments.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Dejun Zeng ◽  
Zhengyang Hu ◽  
Yanjun Yi ◽  
Besskaya Valeria ◽  
Guangyao Shan ◽  

Abstract Background Differences in genetics and microenvironment of LUAD patients with or without TP53 mutation were analyzed to illustrate the role of TP53 mutation within the carcinogenesis of LUAD, which will provide new concepts for the treatment of LUAD. Methods In this study, we used genetics and clinical info from the TCGA database, including somatic mutations data, RNA-seq, miRNA-seq, and clinical data. More than one bioinformatics tools were used to analyze the unique genomic pattern of TP53-related LUAD. Results According to TP53 gene mutation status, we divided the LUAD patients into two groups, including 265 in the mutant group (MU) and 295 in the wild-type group (WT). 787 significant somatic mutations were detected between the groups, including mutations in titin (TTN), type 2 ryanodine receptor (RYR2) and CUB and Sushi multiple domains 3(CSMD3), which were up-regulated in the MU. However, no significant survival difference was observed. At the RNA level, we obtained 923 significantly differentially expressed genes; in the MU, α-defensin 5(DEFA5), pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 5(PSG5) and neuropeptide Y(NPY) were the most up-regulated genes, glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carry gametocidal (GC) were the most down-regulated genes. GSVA analysis revealed 30 significant pathways. Compared with the WT, the expression of 12 pathways in the mutant group was up-regulated, most of which pointed to cell division. There were significant differences in tumor immune infiltrating cells, such as Macrophages M1, T cells CD4 memory activated, Mast cells resting, and Dendritic cells resting. In terms of immune genes, a total of 35 immune-related genes were screened, of which VGF (VGF nerve growth factor inducible) and PGC (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator) were the most significant up-regulated and down-regulated genes, respectively. Research on the expression pattern of immunomodulators found that 9 immune checkpoint molecules and 6 immune costimulatory molecules were considerably wholly different between the two groups. Conclusions Taking the mutant group as a reference, LUAD patients in the mutant group had significant differences in somatic mutations, mRNA-seq, miRNA-seq, immune infiltration, and immunomodulators, indicating that TP53 mutation plays a crucial role in the occurrence and development of LUAD.

Hiroshi Iwata ◽  
Eric A. Osborn ◽  
Giovanni J. Ughi ◽  
Kentaro Murakami ◽  
Claudia Goettsch ◽  

BACKGROUND New pharmacological approaches are needed to prevent stent restenosis. This study tested the hypothesis that pemafibrate, a novel clinical selective PPARα (peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor α) agonist, suppresses coronary stent‐induced arterial inflammation and neointimal hyperplasia. METHODS AND RESULTS Yorkshire pigs randomly received either oral pemafibrate (30 mg/day; n=6) or control vehicle (n=7) for 7 days, followed by coronary arterial implantation of 3.5 × 12 mm bare metal stents (2–4 per animal; 44 stents total). On day 7, intracoronary molecular‐structural near‐infrared fluorescence and optical coherence tomography imaging was performed to assess the arterial inflammatory response, demonstrating that pemafibrate reduced stent‐induced inflammatory protease activity (near‐infrared fluorescence target‐to‐background ratio: pemafibrate, median [25th‐75th percentile]: 2.8 [2.5–3.3] versus control, 4.1 [3.3–4.3], P =0.02). At day 28, animals underwent repeat near‐infrared fluorescence–optical coherence tomography imaging and were euthanized, and coronary stent tissue molecular and histological analyses. Day 28 optical coherence tomography imaging showed that pemafibrate significantly reduced stent neointima volume (pemafibrate, 43.1 [33.7–54.1] mm 3 versus control, 54.2 [41.2–81.1] mm 3 ; P =0.03). In addition, pemafibrate suppressed day 28 stent‐induced cellular inflammation and neointima expression of the inflammatory mediators TNF‐α (tumor necrosis factor‐α) and MMP‐9 (matrix metalloproteinase 9) and enhanced the smooth muscle differentiation markers calponin and smoothelin. In vitro assays indicated that the STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3)–myocardin axes mediated the inhibitory effects of pemafibrate on smooth muscle cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS Pemafibrate reduces preclinical coronary stent inflammation and neointimal hyperplasia following bare metal stent deployment. These results motivate further trials evaluating pemafibrate as a new strategy to prevent clinical stent restenosis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Elisabeth M. Haberl ◽  
Rebekka Pohl ◽  
Lisa Rein-Fischboeck ◽  
Marcus Höring ◽  
Sabrina Krautbauer ◽  

Abstract Background Dysregulated lipid metabolism is critically involved in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The respective metabolic pathways affected in HCC can be identified using suitable experimental models. Mice injected with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and fed a normal chow develop HCC. For the analysis of the pathophysiology of HCC in this model a comprehensive lipidomic analysis was performed. Methods Lipids were measured in tumor and non-tumorous tissues by direct flow injection analysis. Proteins with a role in lipid metabolism were analysed by immunoblot. Mann-Whitney U-test or paired Student´s t-test were used for data analysis. Results Intra-tumor lipid deposition is a characteristic of HCCs, and di- and triglycerides accumulated in the tumor tissues of the mice. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha, lipoprotein lipase and hepatic lipase protein were low in the tumors whereas proteins involved in de novo lipogenesis were not changed. Higher rates of de novo lipogenesis cause a shift towards saturated acyl chains, which did not occur in the murine HCC model. Besides, LDL-receptor protein and cholesteryl ester levels were higher in the murine HCC tissues. Ceramides are cytotoxic lipids and are low in human HCCs. Notably, ceramide levels increased in the murine tumors, and the simultaneous decline of sphingomyelins suggests that sphingomyelinases were involved herein. DEN is well described to induce the tumor suppressor protein p53 in the liver, and p53 was additionally upregulated in the tumors. Conclusions Ceramides mediate the anti-cancer effects of different chemotherapeutic drugs and restoration of ceramide levels was effective against HCC. High ceramide levels in the tumors makes the DEN injected mice an unsuitable model to study therapies targeting ceramide metabolism. This model is useful for investigating how tumors evade the cytotoxic effects of ceramides.

2021 ◽  
Vol 99 (Supplement_3) ◽  
pp. 103-104
Min Du

Abstract Tissues and organs are actively developing during the fetal stage, which is sensitive to nutritional alteration and exerts long-term impacts on offspring performance. Both muscle and adipose tissue are derived from the dermomyotome during the early embryonic stage, and their common origins provide an opportunity to promote myogenic instead of adipogenic differentiation, which enhances the lean/fat ratio of offspring. In previous studies with sheep and cattle, we found that maternal nutrient deficiency reduces fetal myogenesis and the lean/fat ratio of offspring. Stress is common in animals during pregnancy, and we examined the impacts of maternal stress induced by dexamethasone on fetal muscle and adipose development. We found that maternal stress impairs fetal muscle and brown adipose tissue (BAT) development. Mechanistically, we found that maternal stress suppresses mitochondrial biogenesis during fetal muscle and BAT development by elevating DNA methylation in the promoter of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator α (PGC-1α), which persists in offspring muscle and BAT, generating lasting effects on the functions of muscle and adipose tissue. In short, available data clearly show that maternal nutrition and other physiological factors have profound impacts on fetal development, which programs offspring performance. Understanding related mechanisms are important for effective and precise management of animals during gestation in order to enhance production efficiency of offspring.

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