Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a superfamily of transcription factors induced by ligands and also function as integrators of hormonal and nutritional signals. Among NRs, the liver X receptors (LXRs) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) have been of significance as targets for the treatment of metabolic syndrome-related diseases. In recent years, natural products targeting LXRs and FXR have received remarkable interests as a valuable source of novel ligands encompassing diverse chemical structures and bioactive properties. This review aims to survey natural products, originating from terrestrial plants and microorganisms, marine organisms, and marine-derived microorganisms, which could influence LXRs and FXR. In the recent two decades (2000–2020), 261 natural products were discovered from natural resources such as LXRs/FXR modulators, 109 agonists and 38 antagonists targeting LXRs, and 72 agonists and 55 antagonists targeting FXR. The docking evaluation of desired natural products targeted LXRs/FXR is finally discussed. This comprehensive overview will provide a reference for future study of novel LXRs and FXR agonists and antagonists to target human diseases, and attract an increasing number of professional scholars majoring in pharmacy and biology with more in-depth discussion.
The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of liver X receptors α/β (LXR) in primary breast cancer (BC) tissues and to analyze its correlations with clinicopathological parameters including patient survival.
In a well-characterized cohort of 305 primary BC, subcellular distribution of LXR was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Correlations with clinicopathological characteristics as well as with patient outcome were analyzed.
LXR was frequently localized in both nuclei and cytoplasms of BC cells, with stronger staining in nuclei. Total and nuclear LXR expression was positively correlated with ER and PR status. Overall survival analysis demonstrated that cytoplasmic LXR was significantly correlated with poor survival and appeared as an independent marker of poor prognosis, in stage I but not in stage II–III tumors
Altogether, these data suggest that cytoplasmic LXR could be defined as a prognostic marker in early stage primary BC.
Background and Purpose. T0901317, a liver X receptor (LXR) agonist, is widely used to explore the functions of LXRs. T0901317 exerts antiapoptotic effects in many central nervous system disease models. Our aim was to detect the role of T0901317 in neuronal apoptosis in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) models of Sprague-Dawley rats were established with perforation method. T0901317 was injected intraperitoneally 1-hour post-SAH. GSK2033, an inhibitor of LXRs, and interferon regulatory factor (IRF-1) CRISPR activation were injected intracerebroventricularly to evaluate potential signaling pathway. The severity of SAH, neurobehavior test in both short- and long-term and apoptosis was measured with Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. Results. Expression of LXR-α and IRF-1 increased and peaked at 24 h post-SAH, while LXR-β remained unaffected in SAH+vehicle group compared with Sham group. Post-SAH T0901317 treatment attenuated neuronal impairments in both short- and long-term and decreased neuronal apoptosis, the expression of IRF-1, P53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), dynamin-1-like protein (Drp1), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and cleaved caspase-3, and increasing B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) at 24 h from modeling. GSK2033 inhibited LXRs and reversed T0901317’s neuroprotective effects. IRF-1 CRISPR activation upregulated the expression of IRF-1 and abolished the treatment effects of T0901317. Conclusion. T0901317 attenuated neuronal apoptosis via LXRs/IRF-1/PUMA/Drp1 pathway in SAH rats.
Liver X receptors (LXRs) belong to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and function as ligand-dependent transcription factors that regulate cholesterol homeostasis, lipid homeostasis, and immune responses. LXR antagonists are promising treatments for hypercholesterolemia and diabetes. However, effective LXR antagonists and inhibitors are yet to be developed. Thus, we aimed to develop LXR degraders (proteolysis targeting chimeras PROTACs against LXR) as a complementary strategy to provide a similar effect to LXR inhibition. In this study, we report the development of GW3965-PEG5-VH032 (3), a PROTAC capable of effectively degrading LXRβ protein. Compound 3 induced the ubiquitin-proteasome system-dependent degradation of the LXRβ protein, which requires VHL E3 ligase. We hope that PROTACs targeting LXR proteins will become novel therapeutic agents for LXR-related diseases.
Efferocytosis is critical for tissue homeostasis, as its deregulation is associated with several autoimmune pathologies. While engulfing apoptotic cells, phagocytes activate transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) or liver X receptors (LXR) that orchestrate metabolic, phagocytic, and inflammatory responses towards the ingested material. Coordination of these transcription factors in efferocytotic human macrophages is not fully understood. In this study, we evaluated the transcriptional profile of macrophages following the uptake of apoptotic Jurkat T cells using RNA-seq analysis. Results indicated upregulation of PPAR and LXR pathways but downregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP) target genes. Pharmacological inhibition and RNA interference pointed to LXR and PPARδ as relevant transcriptional regulators, while PPARγ did not substantially contribute to gene regulation. Mechanistically, lysosomal digestion and lysosomal acid lipase (LIPA) were required for PPAR and LXR activation, while PPARδ activation also demanded an active lysosomal phospholipase A2 (PLA2G15). Pharmacological interference with LXR signaling attenuated ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux from efferocytotic macrophages, but suppression of inflammatory responses following efferocytosis occurred independently of LXR and PPARδ. These data provide mechanistic details on LXR and PPARδ activation in efferocytotic human macrophages.