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Francisco Blanco ◽  
Ignacio Rego-Perez

Jacopo Mariani ◽  
Simona Iodice ◽  
Laura Cantone ◽  
Giulia Solazzo ◽  
Paolo Marraccini ◽  

Particulate matter (PM) exposure is linked to the worsening of respiratory conditions, including allergic rhinitis (AR), as it can trigger nasal and systemic inflammation. To unveil the underlying molecular mechanisms, we investigated the effects of PM exposure on the release of plasmatic extracellular vesicles (EV) and on the complex cross-talk between the host and the nasal microbiome. To this aim, we evaluated the effects of PM10 and PM2.5 exposures on both the bacteria-derived-EV portion (bEV) and the host-derived EVs (hEV), as well as on bacterial nasal microbiome (bNM) features in 26 AR patients and 24 matched healthy subjects (HS). In addition, we assessed the role exerted by the bNM as a modifier of PM effects on the complex EV signaling network in the paradigmatic context of AR. We observed that PM exposure differently affected EV release and bNM composition in HS compared to AR, thus potentially contributing to the molecular mechanisms underlying AR. The obtained results represent the first step towards the understanding of the complex signaling network linking external stimuli, bNM composition, and the immune risponse.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (10) ◽  
pp. 1031
Atefeh Rayatpour ◽  
Sahar Farhangi ◽  
Ester Verdaguer ◽  
Jordi Olloquequi ◽  
Jesus Ureña ◽  

Despite the significant differences in pathological background of neurodegenerative diseases, epileptic seizures are a comorbidity in many disorders such as Huntington disease (HD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and multiple sclerosis (MS). Regarding the last one, specifically, it has been shown that the risk of developing epilepsy is three to six times higher in patients with MS compared to the general population. In this context, understanding the pathological processes underlying this connection will allow for the targeting of the common and shared pathological pathways involved in both conditions, which may provide a new avenue in the management of neurological disorders. This review provides an outlook of what is known so far about the bidirectional association between epilepsy and MS.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Clara Sanjurjo-Rodríguez ◽  
Rachel E. Crossland ◽  
Monica Reis ◽  
Hemant Pandit ◽  
Xiao-nong Wang ◽  

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a heterogeneous disease in which the cross-talk between the cells from different tissues within the joint is affected as the disease progresses. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are known to have a crucial role in cell-cell communication by means of cargo transfer. Subchondral bone (SB) resident cells and its microenvironment are increasingly recognised to have a major role in OA pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the EV production from OA SB mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and their possible influence on OA chondrocytes. Small EVs were isolated from OA-MSCs, characterized and cocultured with chondrocytes for viability and gene expression analysis, and compared to small EVs from MSCs of healthy donors (H-EVs). OA-EVs enhanced viability of chondrocytes and the expression of chondrogenesis-related genes, although the effect was marginally lower compared to that of the H-EVs. miRNA profiling followed by unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis revealed distinct microRNA sets in OA-EVs as compared to their parental MSCs or H-EVs. Pathway analysis of OA-EV miRNAs showed the enrichment of miRNAs implicated in chondrogenesis, stem cells, or other pathways related to cartilage and OA. In conclusion, OA SB MSCs were capable of producing EVs that could support chondrocyte viability and chondrogenic gene expression and contained microRNAs implicated in chondrogenesis support. These EVs could therefore mediate the cross-talk between the SB and cartilage in OA potentially modulating chondrocyte viability and endogenous cartilage regeneration.

Benjamin W. Harding ◽  
Jonathan J. Ewbank

The simple notion ‘infection causes an immune response' is being progressively refined as it becomes clear that immune mechanisms cannot be understood in isolation, but need to be considered in a more global context with other cellular and physiological processes. In part, this reflects the deployment by pathogens of virulence factors that target diverse cellular processes, such as translation or mitochondrial respiration, often with great molecular specificity. It also reflects molecular cross-talk between a broad range of host signalling pathways. Studies with the model animal C. elegans have uncovered a range of examples wherein innate immune responses are intimately connected with different homeostatic mechanisms, and can influence reproduction, ageing and neurodegeneration, as well as various other aspects of its biology. Here we provide a short overview of a number of such connections, highlighting recent discoveries that further the construction of a fully integrated view of innate immunity.

2021 ◽  
pp. 014616722110481
Y. Z. Foo ◽  
C. A. M. Sutherland ◽  
N. S. Burton ◽  
S. Nakagawa ◽  
G. Rhodes

Being able to identify trustworthy strangers is a critical social skill. However, whether such impressions are accurate is debatable. Critically, the field currently lacks a quantitative summary of the evidence. To address this gap, we conducted two meta-analyses. We tested whether there is a correlation between perceived and actual trustworthiness across faces, and whether perceivers show above-chance accuracy at assessing trustworthiness. Both meta-analyses revealed significant, modest accuracy (face level, r = .14; perceiver level, r = .27). Perceiver-level effects depended on domain, with aggressiveness and sexual unfaithfulness having stronger effects than agreeableness, criminality, financial reciprocity, and honesty. We also applied research weaving to map the literature, revealing potential biases, including a preponderance of Western studies, a lack of “cross-talk” between research groups, and clarity issues. Overall, this modest accuracy is unlikely to be of practical utility. Moreover, we strongly urge the field to improve reporting standards and generalizability of the results.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Roberta Kurelic ◽  
Paula F. Krieg ◽  
Jana K. Sonner ◽  
Gloria Bhaiyan ◽  
Gustavo C. Ramos ◽  

3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is well-known for its diverse immunomodulatory properties, primarily inhibitory effects during T cell activation, proliferation, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. A decrease in cAMP levels, due to the hydrolyzing activity of phosphodiesterases (PDE), is favoring inflammatory responses. This can be prevented by selective PDE inhibitors, which makes PDEs important therapeutic targets for autoimmune disorders. In this study, we investigated the specific roles of PDE2A and PDE3B in the regulation of intracellular cAMP levels in different mouse T cell subsets. Unexpectedly, T cell receptor (TCR) activation led to a selective upregulation of PDE2A at the protein level in conventional T cells (Tcon), whereas no changes were detected in regulatory T cells (Treg). In contrast, protein expression of PDE3B was significantly higher in both non-activated and activated Tcon subsets as compared to Treg, with no changes upon TCR engagement. Live-cell imaging of T cells expressing a highly sensitive Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensor, Epac1-camps, has enabled cAMP measurements in real time and revealed stronger responses to the PDE2A inhibitors in activated vs non-activated Tcon. Importantly, stimulation of intracellular cGMP levels with natriuretic peptides led to an increase of cAMP in non-activated and a decrease of cAMP in activated Tcon, suggesting that TCR activation changes the PDE3B-dependent positive to PDE2A-dependent negative cGMP/cAMP cross-talk. Functionally, this switch induced higher expression of early activation markers CD25 and CD69. This constitutes a potentially interesting feed-forward mechanism during autoimmune and inflammatory responses that may be exploited therapeutically.

2021 ◽  
Vol 118 (41) ◽  
pp. e2112971118
Hui Jing ◽  
Alex Reed ◽  
Olesya A. Ulanovskaya ◽  
Jan-Sebastian Grigoleit ◽  
Dylan M. Herbst ◽  

Human genetic studies have pointed to a prominent role for innate immunity and lipid pathways in immunological and neurodegenerative disorders. Our understanding of the composition and function of immunomodulatory lipid networks in innate immune cells, however, remains incomplete. Here, we show that phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2 or PLCG2)—mutations in which are associated with autoinflammatory disorders and Alzheimer’s disease—serves as a principal source of diacylglycerol (DAG) pools that are converted into a cascade of bioactive endocannabinoid and eicosanoid lipids by DAG lipase (DAGL) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MGLL) enzymes in innate immune cells. We show that this lipid network is tonically stimulated by disease-relevant human mutations in PLCγ2, as well as Fc receptor activation in primary human and mouse macrophages. Genetic disruption of PLCγ2 in mouse microglia suppressed DAGL/MGLL-mediated endocannabinoid-eicosanoid cross-talk and also caused widespread transcriptional and proteomic changes, including the reorganization of immune-relevant lipid pathways reflected in reductions in DAGLB and elevations in PLA2G4A. Despite these changes, Plcg2−/− mice showed generally normal proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine responses to lipopolysaccharide treatment, instead displaying a more restricted deficit in microglial activation that included impairments in prostaglandin production and CD68 expression. Our findings enhance the understanding of PLCγ2 function in innate immune cells, delineating a role in cross-talk with endocannabinoid/eicosanoid pathways and modulation of subsets of cellular responses to inflammatory stimuli.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (S1) ◽  
Akila Surendran ◽  
C. Forbes Dewey ◽  
Boon Chuan Low ◽  
Lisa Tucker-Kellogg

Abstract Background RhoA is a master regulator of cytoskeletal contractility, while nitric oxide (NO) is a master regulator of relaxation, e.g., vasodilation. There are multiple forms of cross-talk between the RhoA/ROCK pathway and the eNOS/NO/cGMP pathway, but previous work has not studied their interplay at a systems level. Literature review suggests that the majority of their cross-talk interactions are antagonistic, which motivates us to ask whether the RhoA and NO pathways exhibit mutual antagonism in vitro, and if so, to seek the theoretical implications of their mutual antagonism. Results Experiments found mutual antagonism between RhoA and NO in epithelial cells. Since mutual antagonism is a common motif for bistability, we sought to explore through theoretical simulations whether the RhoA-NO network is capable of bistability. Qualitative modeling showed that there are parameters that can cause bistable switching in the RhoA-NO network, and that the robustness of the bistability would be increased by positive feedback between RhoA and mechanical tension. Conclusions We conclude that the RhoA-NO bistability is robust enough in silico to warrant the investment of further experimental testing. Tension-dependent bistability has the potential to create sharp concentration gradients, which could contribute to the localization and self-organization of signaling domains during cytoskeletal remodeling and cell migration.

Biomedicines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (10) ◽  
pp. 1309
Sarah Di Somma ◽  
Fabiana Napolitano ◽  
Giuseppe Portella ◽  
Anna Maria Malfitano

Cellular compartments constituting the tumor microenvironment including immune cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and mesenchymal stromal/stem cells communicate with malignant cells to orchestrate a series of signals that contribute to the evolution of the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we will focus on the interplay in tumor microenvironment between macrophages and mesenchymal stem cells and macrophages and fibroblasts. In particular, cell–cell interaction and mediators secreted by these cells will be examined to explain pro/anti-tumor phenotypes induced in macrophages. Nonetheless, in the context of virotherapy, the response of macrophages as a consequence of treatment with oncolytic viruses will be analyzed regarding their polarization status and their pro/anti-tumor response.

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