Abstract Physids belong to Class Gastropoda; belong to Phylum Mollusca and being bioindicators, intermediate hosts of parasites and pests hold a key position in the ecosystem. There are three species of Genus Physa i.e. P. fontinalis, Physa acuta and P. gyrina water bodies of Central Punjab and were characterized on the basis of molecular markers High level of genetic diversity was revealed by polymorphic RAPD, however SSR markers were not amplified. The multivariate analysis revealed polymorphism ranging from 9.09 percent to 50 percent among the three Physid species. Total number of 79 loci were observed for the three species under study and 24 loci were observed to be polymorphic. These RAPD fragment(s) can be developed into co dominant markers (SCAR) by cloning and can be further sequenced for the development of the Physa species specific markers to identify the introduced and native species in Pakistan.
AbstractIn this study, genome-wide identification, phylogenetic relationships, duplication time and selective pressure of the NBS-LRR genes, an important group of plant disease-resistance genes (R genes), were performed to uncover their genetic evolutionary patterns in the six Prunus species. A total of 1946 NBS-LRR genes were identified; specifically, 589, 361, 284, 281, 318, and 113 were identified in Prunus yedoensis, P. domestica, P. avium, P. dulcis, P. persica and P. yedoensis var. nudiflora, respectively. Two NBS-LRR gene subclasses, TIR-NBS-LRR (TNL) and non-TIR-NBS-LRR (non-TNL), were also discovered. In total, 435 TNL and 1511 non-TNL genes were identified and could be classified into 30/55/75 and 103/158/191 multi-gene families, respectively, according to three different criteria. Higher Ks and Ka/Ks values were detected in TNL gene families than in non-TNL gene families. These results indicated that the TNL genes had more members involved in relatively ancient duplications and were affected by stronger selection pressure than the non-TNL genes. In general, the NBS-LRR genes were shaped by species-specific duplications, and lineage-specific duplications occurred at recent and relatively ancient periods among the six Prunus species. Therefore, different duplicated copies of NBS-LRRs can resist specific pathogens and will provide an R-gene library for resistance breeding in Prunus species.
AbstractCoexistence of competing species in the same foraging guild has long puzzled ecologists. In particular, how do small subordinate species persist with larger dominant competitors? This question becomes particularly important when conservation interventions, such as reintroduction or translocation, become necessary for the smaller species. Exclusion of dominant competitors might be necessary to establish populations of some endangered species. Ultimately, however, the goal should be to conserve whole communities. Determining how subordinate species escape competitive exclusion in intact communities could inform conservation decisions by clarifying the ecological conditions and processes required for coexistence at local or regional scales. We tested for spatial and temporal partitioning among six species of native, granivorous rodents using null models, and characterized the microhabitat of each species using resource-selection models. We found that the species’ nightly activity patterns are aggregated temporally but segregated spatially. As expected, we found clear evidence that the larger-bodied kangaroo rats drive spatial partitioning, but we also found species-specific microhabitat associations, which suggests that habitat heterogeneity is part of what enables these species to coexist. Restoration of natural disturbance regimes that create habitat heterogeneity, and selection of translocation sites without specific competitors, are among the management recommendations to consider in this case. More generally, this study highlights the need for a community-level approach to conservation and the usefulness of basic ecological data for guiding management decisions.
AbstractQuantifying the drivers of population size in reef sharks is critical for the development of appropriate conservation strategies. In north-west Australia, shark populations inhabit coral reefs that border growing centres of human population, industry, and tourism. However, we lack baseline data on reef sharks at large spatial scales (hundreds of km) that might enable managers to assess the status of shark populations in the face of future development in this region. Here, we examined the occurrence, abundance and behaviour of apex (Galeocerdo cuvier, Carcharhinus plumbeus) and reef (C. amblyrhynchos, C. melanopterus, Triaenodon obesus) sharks using > 1200 deployments of baited remote underwater stereo-video systems (stereo-BRUVs) across > 500 km of coastline. We found evidence for species-specific influences of habitat and fishing activities on the occurrence (probability of observation), abundance (MaxN) and behaviour of sharks (time of arrival to the stereo-BRUVs and likelihood of feeding). Although the presence of management zoning (No-take areas) made little difference to most species, C. amblyrhynchos were more common further from boat ramps (a proxy of recreational fishing pressure). Time of arrival for all species was also influenced by distance to boat ramp, although patterns varied among species. Our results demonstrate the capacity for behavioural metrics to complement existing measures of occurrence and abundance in assessing the potential impact of human activities on shark populations.
AbstractActivation of the serum-resident complement system begins a cascade that leads to activation of membrane-resident complement receptors on immune cells, thus coordinating serum and cellular immune responses. Whilst many molecules act to control inappropriate activation, Properdin is the only known positive regulator of the human complement system. By stabilising the alternative pathway C3 convertase it promotes complement self-amplification and persistent activation boosting the magnitude of the serum complement response by all triggers. In this work, we identify a family of tick-derived alternative pathway complement inhibitors, hereafter termed CirpA. Functional and structural characterisation reveals that members of the CirpA family directly bind to properdin, inhibiting its ability to promote complement activation, and leading to potent inhibition of the complement response in a species specific manner. We provide a full functional and structural characterisation of a properdin inhibitor, opening avenues for future therapeutic approaches.