inflammatory stimuli
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Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 299
Fernanda Murtinheira ◽  
Mafalda Migueis ◽  
Ricardo Letra-Vilela ◽  
Mickael Diallo ◽  
Andrea Quezada ◽  

Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS) is a neurodegenerative disorder commonly diagnosed in infants and characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, spasticity, motor sensory neuropathy and axonal demyelination. ARSACS is caused by mutations in the SACS gene that lead to truncated or defective forms of the 520 kDa multidomain protein, sacsin. Sacsin function is exclusively studied on neuronal cells, where it regulates mitochondrial network organization and facilitates the normal polymerization of neuronal intermediate filaments (i.e., neurofilaments and vimentin). Here, we show that sacsin is also highly expressed in astrocytes, C6 rat glioma cells and N9 mouse microglia. Sacsin knockout in C6 cells (C6Sacs−/−) induced the accumulation of the glial intermediate filaments glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), nestin and vimentin in the juxtanuclear area, and a concomitant depletion of mitochondria. C6Sacs−/− cells showed impaired responses to oxidative challenges (Rotenone) and inflammatory stimuli (Interleukin-6). GFAP aggregation is also associated with other neurodegenerative conditions diagnosed in infants, such as Alexander disease or Giant Axonal Neuropathy. Our results, and the similarities between these disorders, reinforce the possible connection between ARSACS and intermediate filament-associated diseases and point to a potential role of glia in ARSACS pathology.

2022 ◽  
Andrew G Wang ◽  
Minjun Son ◽  
Nicholas Thom ◽  
Savas Tay

Many scenarios in cellular communication requires cells to interpret multiple dynamic signals. It is unclear how exposure to immune stimuli alters transcriptional responses to subsequent stimulus under inflammatory conditions. Using high-throughput microfluidic live cell analysis, we systematically profiled the NF-κB response to different signal sequences in single cells. We found that NF-κB dynamics stores the history of signals received by cells: depending on the dose and type of prior pathogenic and cytokine signal, the NF-κB response to subsequent stimuli varied widely, from no response to full activation. Using information theory, we revealed that these stimulus-dependent changes in the NF-κB response encode and reflect information about the identity and dose of the prior stimulus. Small-molecule inhibition, computational modeling, and gene expression profiling show that this encoding is driven by stimulus-dependent engagement of negative feedback modules. These results provide a model for how signal transduction networks process sequences of inflammatory stimuli to coordinate cellular responses in complex dynamic environments.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Anna Foley ◽  
Benjamin E. Steinberg ◽  
Neil M. Goldenberg

Inflammasomes are multi-protein complexes that sense both infectious and sterile inflammatory stimuli, launching a cascade of responses to propagate danger signaling throughout an affected tissue. Recent studies have implicated inflammasome activation in a variety of pulmonary diseases, including pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Indeed, the end-products of inflammasome activation, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, and lytic cell death (“pyroptosis”) are all key biomarkers of PAH, and are potentially therapeutic targets for human disease. This review summarizes current knowledge of inflammasome activation in immune and vascular cells of the lung, with a focus on the role of these pathways in the pathogenesis of PAH. Special emphasis is placed on areas of potential drug development focused on inhibition of inflammasomes and their downstream effectors.

2022 ◽  
Tamara Zorbaz ◽  
Nimrod Madrer ◽  
Hermona Soreq

Inflammatory stimuli and consequent pro-inflammatory immune responses may facilitate neurodegeneration and threaten survival following pathogen infection or trauma, but potential controllers preventing these risks are incompletely understood. Here, we argue that small RNA regulators of acetylcholine (ACh) signaling, including microRNAs and transfer RNA fragments may tilt the balance between innate and adaptive immunity, avoid chronic inflammation and prevent the neuroinflammation-mediated exacerbation of many neurological diseases. While the restrictive permeability of the blood-brain barrier protects the brain from peripheral immune events, this barrier can be disrupted by inflammation and is weakened with age. The consequently dysregulated balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes may modify the immune activities of brain microglia, astrocytes, perivascular macrophages, oligodendrocytes and dendritic cells, leading to neuronal damage. Notably, the vagus nerve mediates the peripheral cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex and underlines the consistent control of body-brain inflammation by pro-inflammatory cytokines, which affect cholinergic functions; therefore, the disruption of this reflex can exacerbate cognitive impairments such as attention deficits and delirium. RNA regulators can contribute to re-balancing the cholinergic network and avoiding its chronic deterioration, and their activities may differ between men and women and/or wear off with age. This can lead to hypersensitivity of aged patients to inflammation and higher risks of neuroinflammatory-driven cholinergic impairments such as delirium and dementia following COVID-19 infection. The age- and sex-driven differences in post-transcriptional RNA regulators of cholinergic elements may hence indicate new personalized therapeutic options for neuroinflammatory diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Danny Galleguillos ◽  
Qian Wang ◽  
Noam Steinberg ◽  
Asifa Zaidi ◽  
Gaurav Shrivastava ◽  

Abstract Background Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids highly enriched in the brain, with important roles in cell signaling, cell-to-cell communication, and immunomodulation. Genetic defects in the ganglioside biosynthetic pathway result in severe neurodegenerative diseases, while a partial decrease in the levels of specific gangliosides was reported in Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease. In models of both diseases and other conditions, administration of GM1—one of the most abundant gangliosides in the brain—provides neuroprotection. Most studies have focused on the direct neuroprotective effects of gangliosides on neurons, but their role in other brain cells, in particular microglia, is not known. In this study we investigated the effects of exogenous ganglioside administration and modulation of endogenous ganglioside levels on the response of microglia to inflammatory stimuli, which often contributes to initiation or exacerbation of neurodegeneration. Methods In vitro studies were performed using BV2 cells, mouse, rat, and human primary microglia cultures. Modulation of microglial ganglioside levels was achieved by administration of exogenous gangliosides, or by treatment with GENZ-123346 and L–t-PDMP, an inhibitor and an activator of glycolipid biosynthesis, respectively. Response of microglia to inflammatory stimuli (LPS, IL-1β, phagocytosis of latex beads) was measured by analysis of gene expression and/or secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The effects of GM1 administration on microglia activation were also assessed in vivo in C57Bl/6 mice, following intraperitoneal injection of LPS. Results GM1 decreased inflammatory microglia responses in vitro and in vivo, even when administered after microglia activation. These anti-inflammatory effects depended on the presence of the sialic acid residue in the GM1 glycan headgroup and the presence of a lipid tail. Other gangliosides shared similar anti-inflammatory effects in in vitro models, including GD3, GD1a, GD1b, and GT1b. Conversely, GM3 and GQ1b displayed pro-inflammatory activity. The anti-inflammatory effects of GM1 and other gangliosides were partially reproduced by increasing endogenous ganglioside levels with L–t-PDMP, whereas inhibition of glycolipid biosynthesis exacerbated microglial activation in response to LPS stimulation. Conclusions Our data suggest that gangliosides are important modulators of microglia inflammatory responses and reveal that administration of GM1 and other complex gangliosides exerts anti-inflammatory effects on microglia that could be exploited therapeutically.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Diego Ulisse Pizzagalli ◽  
Alain Pulfer ◽  
Marcus Thelen ◽  
Rolf Krause ◽  
Santiago F. Gonzalez

The migration of immune cells plays a key role in inflammation. This is evident in the fact that inflammatory stimuli elicit a broad range of migration patterns in immune cells. Since these patterns are pivotal for initiating the immune response, their dysregulation is associated with life-threatening conditions including organ failure, chronic inflammation, autoimmunity, and cancer, amongst others. Over the last two decades, thanks to advancements in the intravital microscopy technology, it has become possible to visualize cell migration in living organisms with unprecedented resolution, helping to deconstruct hitherto unexplored aspects of the immune response associated with the dynamism of cells. However, a comprehensive classification of the main motility patterns of immune cells observed in vivo, along with their relevance to the inflammatory process, is still lacking. In this review we defined cell actions as motility patterns displayed by immune cells, which are associated with a specific role during the immune response. In this regard, we summarize the main actions performed by immune cells during intravital microscopy studies. For each of these actions, we provide a consensus name, a definition based on morphodynamic properties, and the biological contexts in which it was reported. Moreover, we provide an overview of the computational methods that were employed for the quantification, fostering an interdisciplinary approach to study the immune system from imaging data.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 371
Takuya Kusakabe ◽  
Yasunobu Sawaji ◽  
Kenji Endo ◽  
Hidekazu Suzuki ◽  
Takamitsu Konishi ◽  

The molecular mechanism of discogenic low back pain (LBP) involves nonphysiological nerve invasion into a degenerated intervertebral disc (IVD), induced by nerve growth factor (NGF). Selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors are mainly used in the treatment of LBP, and act by suppressing the inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which is induced by inflammatory stimuli, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β). However, in our previous in vitro study using cultured human IVD cells, we demonstrated that the induction of NGF by IL-1β is augmented by a selective COX-2 inhibitor, and that PGE2 and PGE1 suppress NGF expression. Therefore, in this study, to elucidate the mechanism of NGF suppression by PGE2 and PGE1, we focused on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and its phosphatase, dual-specificity phosphatase (DUSP)-1. IL-1β-induced NGF expression was altered in human IVD cells by MAPK pathway inhibitors. PGE2 and PGE1 enhanced IL-1β-induced DUSP-1 expression, and suppressed the phosphorylation of MAPKs in human IVD cells. In DUSP-1 knockdown cells established using small interfering RNA, IL-1β-induced phosphorylation of MAPKs was enhanced and prolonged, and NGF expression was significantly enhanced. These results suggest that PGE2 and PGE1 suppress IL-1β-induced NGF expression by suppression of the MAPK signaling pathway, accompanied by increased DUSP-1 expression.

Cyrine Ben Dhaou ◽  
Annalisa Del Prete ◽  
Silvano Sozzani ◽  
Marc Parmentier

Chemerin is a multifunctional protein involved in the regulation of inflammation, metabolism, and tumorigenesis. It binds to three receptors, CMKLR1, GPR1 and CCRL2. CMKLR1 is a fully functional receptor mediating most of the known activities of chemerin. CCRL2 does not seem to couple to any intracellular signaling pathway and is presently considered as an atypical receptor able to present the protein to cells expressing CMKLR1. CCRL2 is expressed by many cell types including leukocyte subsets and endothelial cells, and its expression is strongly upregulated by inflammatory stimuli. We recently reported that chemerin can negatively regulate the angiogenesis process, including during the development of the vascular network in mouse retina. The role of CCRL2 in angiogenesis was unexplored so far. In the present work, we demonstrate that mice lacking CCRL2 exhibit a lower density of vessels in the developing retina and this phenotype persists in adulthood, in a CMKLR1-dependent manner. Vascular sprouting was not affected, while vessel pruning, and endothelial cell apoptosis were increased. Pathological angiogenesis was also reduced in CCRL2-/- mice in a model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. The phenotype closely mimics that of mice overexpressing chemerin, and the concentration of chemerin was found elevated in the blood of newborn mice, when the retinal vasculature develops. CCRL2 appears therefore to regulate the distribution and concentration of chemerin in organs, regulating thereby its bioactivity.

2021 ◽  
Miranda L. Wilson ◽  
Jarl A. Thysell ◽  
Kristen K. Baumann ◽  
Daniel V. Quaranta ◽  
W. Sandy Liang ◽  

Abstract Anesthetics are required for procedures that deliver drugs/biologics, infectious/inflammatory agents, and toxicants directly to the lungs. However, the possible confounding effects of anesthesia on lung inflammation and injury are underreported. Here, we tested the effects of brief isoflurane (Iso) or ketamine/xylazine/atipamezole (K/X/A) anesthesia prior to ozone exposure (4 hours, 3ppm) on lung inflammatory responses in mice. Anesthesia regimens modeled those used for non-surgical intratracheal instillations, and were administered 1-2 hours or 24 hours prior to initiating ozone exposure. We found that Iso given 1-2 hours prior to ozone inhibited inflammatory responses in the lung, and this effect was absent when Iso was given 23-24 hours prior to ozone. In contrast, K/X/A given 1-2 hours prior to ozone increased lung and systemic inflammation. Our results highlight the need to comprehensively evaluate anesthesia as an experimental variable in the assessment of lung inflammation in response to ozone and other inflammatory stimuli.

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 3587
Satyendra Chandra Tripathi ◽  
Disha Vedpathak ◽  
Edwin Justin Ostrin

Cell-mediated immunity is driven by antigenic peptide presentation on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Specialized proteasome complexes called immunoproteasomes process viral, bacterial, and tumor antigens for presentation on MHC class I molecules, which can induce CD8 T cells to mount effective immune responses. Immunoproteasomes are distinguished by three subunits that alter the catalytic activity of the proteasome and are inducible by inflammatory stimuli such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ). This inducible activity places them in central roles in cancer, autoimmunity, and inflammation. While accelerated proteasomal degradation is an important tumorigenic mechanism deployed by several cancers, there is some ambiguity regarding the role of immunoproteasome induction in neoplastic transformation. Understanding the mechanistic and functional relevance of the immunoproteasome provides essential insights into developing targeted therapies, including overcoming resistance to standard proteasome inhibition and immunomodulation of the tumor microenvironment. In this review, we discuss the roles of the immunoproteasome in different cancers.

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