scholarly journals An Analysis of Chemistry Textbooks' and Teachers' Conceptions on Brønsted-Lowry Acid-Base

2017 ◽  
Vol 61 (2) ◽  
pp. 65-76 ◽  
Sung-Ki Kim ◽  
Chul-Yong Park ◽  
Hee Choi ◽  
Seoung-Hey Paik
ChemInform ◽  
2014 ◽  
Vol 45 (9) ◽  
pp. no-no
Erich C. Meister ◽  
Martin Willeke ◽  
Werner Angst ◽  
Antonio Togni ◽  
Peter Walde

2020 ◽  
Vol 17 (34) ◽  
pp. 213-219

Titration curves are an essential subject of an Analytical Chemistry course. The main objective of calculating titration curves is the selection of an indicator for such titrations. The calculation of titration errors is imperative because they establish if a given indicator can be used for a given titration. This study reviews the available literature on titration curves and calculating their errors. Its purpose is to draw attention to the importance of undergraduate chemistry students having competencies to determine the titration errors rather than skills to build titration curves as the ultimate purpose of these curves is to determine the failure committed when using a given indicator to assess their endpoints. It is shown that the pH and potential calculation at the equivalence point in acid-base and redox titrations, respectively, are not required to choose the titration indicator, one that yields an acceptable error according to the type of application needed. Methods to calculate these errors in the four main types of titrations are presented; those for complexometric and precipitation titrations are simpler than in the literature. Here, it is also demonstrated that calculating points immediately after and before the curve inflection are more critical for this selection in these two types of titrations. Also, it is deducted that complexometric and precipitation curves are not required to select indicators for these titrations. These demonstrations are essential because analytical chemistry teachers may disregard teaching important topics by spending time calculating unnecessary titration curves (complexometric and precipitation titrations) or additional points of titration curves (redox and acid-base titrations) when the calculation of titration errors of these reactions is more critical. Most analytical chemistry textbooks neglect this topic. Undergraduate chemistry programs should focus more on calculating titration errors than on the construction of titration curves.

2014 ◽  
Vol 84 (3-4) ◽  
pp. 0206-0217 ◽  
Seyedeh-Elaheh Shariati-Bafghi ◽  
Elaheh Nosrat-Mirshekarlou ◽  
Mohsen Karamati ◽  
Bahram Rashidkhani

Findings of studies on the link between dietary acid-base balance and bone mass are relatively mixed. We examined the association between dietary acid-base balance and bone mineral density (BMD) in a sample of Iranian women, hypothesizing that a higher dietary acidity would be inversely associated with BMD, even when dietary calcium intake is adequate. In this cross-sectional study, lumbar spine and femoral neck BMDs of 151 postmenopausal women aged 50 - 85 years were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Renal net acid excretion (RNAE), an estimate of acid-base balance, was then calculated indirectly from the diet using the formulae of Remer (based on dietary intakes of protein, phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium; RNAERemer) and Frassetto (based on dietary intakes of protein and potassium; RNAEFrassetto), and was energy adjusted by the residual method. After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariable adjusted means of the lumbar spine BMD of women in the highest tertiles of RNAERemer and RNAEFrassetto were significantly lower than those in the lowest tertiles (for RNAERemer: mean difference -0.084 g/cm2; P=0.007 and for RNAEFrassetto: mean difference - 0.088 g/cm2; P=0.004). Similar results were observed in a subgroup analysis of subjects with dietary calcium intake of >800 mg/day. In conclusion, a higher RNAE (i. e. more dietary acidity), which is associated with greater intake of acid-generating foods and lower intake of alkali-generating foods, may be involved in deteriorating the bone health of postmenopausal Iranian women, even in the context of adequate dietary calcium intake.

2014 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 143-147
Md. Ansar Ali ◽  
Kaniz Hasina ◽  
Shahnoor Islam ◽  
Md. Ashraf Ul Huq ◽  
Md. Mahbub-Ul Alam ◽  

Background: Different treatment modalities and procedures have been tried for the management of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. But surgery remains the mainstay for management of IHPS. Ramstedt’s pyloromyotomy was described almost over a hundred years ago and to date remains the surgical technique of choice. An alternative and better technique is the double-Y pyloromyotomy, which offer better results for management of this common condition.Methods: A prospective comparative interventional study of 40 patients with IHPS was carried out over a period of 2 years from July 2008 to July 2010. The patients were divided into 2 equal groups of 20 patients in each. The study was designed that all patients selected for study were optimized preoperatively regarding to hydration, acid-base status and electrolytes imbalance. All surgeries were performed after obtaining informed consent. Standard preoperative preparation and postoperative feeding regimes were used. The patients were operated on an alternate basis, i.e., one patient by Double-Y Pyloromyotomy(DY) and the next by aRamstedt’s Pyloromyotomy (RP). Data on patient demographics, operative time, anesthesia complications, postoperative complications including vomiting and weight gain were collected. Patients were followed up for a period of 3 months postoperatively. Statistical assessments were done by using t test.Results: From July 2008 through July 2010, fourty patients were finally analyzed for this study. Any statistical differences were observed in patient population regarding age, sex, weight at presentation, symptoms and clinical condition including electrolytes imbalance and acid-base status were recorded. Significant differences were found in postoperative vomiting and weight gain. Data of post operative vomiting and weight gain in both groups were collected. Vomiting in double-Y(DY) pyloromyotomy group (1.21 ± 0.45days) vs Ramstedt’s pyloromyotomy (RP) group(3.03 ± 0.37days) p= 0.0001.Weight gain after 1st 10 days DY vs RP is ( 298 ± 57.94 gm vs193±19.8 gm p=0.0014), after 1 month (676.67±149.84 gm vs 466.67 ± 127.71 gm, p=0.0001), after 2months (741.33± 278.74 gm vs 490±80.62 gm, p=0.002) and after 3 months (582±36.01gm vs 453.33±51.64 gm, p=0.0001).No long-term complications were reported and no re-do yloromyotomy was needed.Conclusion: The double-Y pyloromyotomy seems to be a better technique for the surgical management of IHPS. It may offer a better functional outcome in term of postoperative vomiting and weight gain.DOI:

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