mineral density
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
A. A. Banjabi ◽  
K. Kannan ◽  
T. A. Kumosani ◽  
J. M. Yousef ◽  
K. O. Abulnaja ◽  

Abstract Serum toxic metals have been implicated in development of many diseases. This study investigated the association between blood levels of lead and cadmium with abnormal bone mineral density (BMD) and incidence of osteoporosis. Sixty Saudi male adults age matching were assigned into two groups: A healthy control group (n = 30) and osteoporosis patients diagnosed according to T-score (n = 30). Serum calcium, vitamin D, osteocalcin, lead, cadmium were measured. Osteoporotic group showed a highly significant elevation of blood lead and cadmium levels compared to the control group (p <0.001). BMD was negatively correlated with serum osteocalcin level compared with control. There was a significant negative correlation between the cadmium and lead levels (r=-0.465 and p-value = 0.01) and calcium (p < 0.004). Our findings suggested that high cadmium and lead were negative correlated to BMD and increased the risk factor for osteoporosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 316-322
Meng-Sheng Song ◽  
Xiao Yu ◽  
Peng-Ze Rong ◽  
Qing-Jiang Pang

Objectives: To compare the effects of signaling-selective parathyroid hormone analogs [G1, R19]hPTH(1–28) [GR(1–28)] and [G1, R19]hPTH(1–34) [GR(1–34)] on osteoporotic osteocyte apoptosis, and to explore the mechanism of the anti-osteoporotic difference. Methods: The osteoporosis model was established in eighty adult female C57BL/6 mice aged 12 weeks. The mice were subcutaneously administered with GR(1–28) and GR(1–34) 5 days per week for 8 weeks. Bilateral femur samples were collected at 4 and 8 weeks, and micro-computed tomography (CT), H&E staining and immunohistochemical staining analyses were performed. Results: From micro-CT analysis, GR(1–34) increased proximal femoral bone mineral density (BMD) and relative bone volume (BV/TV), which was higher than GR(1–28) did. In addition, more trabecular number (Tb.N), thinner trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and wider trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) were measured at week 8 using GR(1–34). From H&E and immunohistochemical staining, a stronger apoptosis inhibition was induced by GR(1–34) with more Bcl-2 secretion but less Bax expression, as opposed to GR(1–28). Conclusions: GR(1–34) shows better anti-osteoporotic effects than GR(1–28), which appears to be attributed to the activation of the PLC-independent PKC signaling pathway triggered by the former, inhibiting osteocyte apoptosis through up-regulation of Bcl-2 and down-regulation of Bax to increase bone mass and improving trabecular bone microstructure to enhance bone quality by reducing trabecular number, increasing trabecular thickness and trabecular space.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Estelle Strydom ◽  
Lizelle Zandberg ◽  
Erna T. Kemp ◽  
Philip vZ. Venter ◽  
Cornelius M. Smuts ◽  

Both iron and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids may play an important role in bone development. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pre- and post-natal iron and n-3 fatty acid deficiency (FAD), alone and in combination, on bone development in rats, and to determine whether effects are reversible when a sufficient diet is provided post-weaning. Using a 2×2-factorial design, 56 female Wistar rats were allocated to one of four diets: (1) control, (2) iron deficient (ID), (3) n-3 FAD or (4) ID and n-3 FAD, and were maintained on the respective diets throughout gestation and lactation. At weaning (post-natal day [PND] 21), offspring (n = 24/group; male:female=1:1) were randomly allocated to either continue with their respective diets or to switch to the control diet until PND 42-45. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone strength were determined using dual X-ray absorptiometry and three-point bending tests, respectively. Pre- and post-natal ID resulted in significantly lower BMD in the spine and bone strength in the left femur. Both ID and n-3 FAD resulted in lower BMD in the right femur, with an additive reduction in the combined ID and n-3 FAD group vs. controls. While negative effects of pre- and post-natal ID alone were reversed in offspring switched to a control diet post-weaning, lower BMD and bone strength persisted in offspring with combined ID and n-3 FAD during the prenatal and early post-natal period. Effects were not sex-specific. These results indicate that ID during early life may negatively influence bone development, with potential additive effects of n-3 FAD. While the effects of ID alone seem reversible, a combined ID and n-3 FAD may result in irreversible deficits in bone development.

Minerals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 98
Jordi Ibáñez-Insa

The crystal structures of newly found minerals are routinely determined using single-crystal techniques. However, many rare minerals usually form micrometer-sized aggregates that are difficult to study with conventional structural methods. This is the case for numerous platinum-group minerals (PGMs) such as, for instance, zaccariniite (RhNiAs), the crystal structure of which was first obtained by studying synthetic samples. The aim of the present work is to explore the usefulness of USPEX, a powerful crystal structure prediction method, as an alternative means of determining the crystal structure of minerals such as zaccariniite, with a relatively simple crystal structure and chemical formula. We show that fixed composition USPEX searches with a variable number of formula units, using the ideal formula of the mineral as the only starting point, successfully predict the tetragonal structure of a mineral. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations can then be performed in order to more tightly relax the structure of the mineral and calculate different fundamental properties, such as the frequency of zone-center Raman-active phonons, or even their pressure behavior. These theoretical data can be subsequently compared to experimental results, which, in the case of newly found minerals, would allow one to confirm the correctness of the crystal structure predicted by the USPEX code.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 93-100
S S Jha ◽  
Amit B Jain ◽  
Nilanj Dave ◽  
Alok Chaturvedi ◽  
Sandesh Warudkar

Teriparatide (TPTD) (recombinant Parathyroid Hormone 1-34) is one of the pioneer osteo-anabolic agents approved for management of osteoporosis. Being an anabolic agent, it increases bone mineral density by inducing formation of new bone by the action on osteoblasts. As new bone formation is an important aspect of fracture healing as well, Teriparatide has long been a product of interest with respect to its effect on the process of fracture healing. Though fracture healing is not an approved indication for Teriparatide, there is quite a substantial amount of published data related to its effectiveness in fracture healing. With an intent to better understand the role of teriparatide in fracture, we share few case reports of successful fracture healing after giving Teriparatide and also review the published evidences of union taking place in difficult delayed union and non-union cases secondary to mechanical instability, inadequate fixation support or other reasons. This article thus, intended to summarize the accumulating preclinical and clinical evidence for role of TPTD in accelerating fracture healing in various conditions like conservative management of fractures, vertebral fractures, non-unions, delayed unions and atypical femoral fractures.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 444
Angelos Kaspiris ◽  
Olga D. Savvidou ◽  
Elias S. Vasiliadis ◽  
Argyris C. Hadjimichael ◽  
Dimitra Melissaridou ◽  

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), which is the most common phacomatoses, is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by clinical presentations in various tissues and organs, such as the skin, eyes and nervous and skeletal systems. The musculoskeletal implications of NF1 include a variety of deformities, including scoliosis, kyphoscoliosis, spondylolistheses, congenital bony bowing, pseudarthrosis and bone dysplasia. Scoliosis is the most common skeletal problem, affecting 10–30% of NF1 patients. Although the pathophysiology of spinal deformities has not been elucidated yet, defects in bone metabolism have been implicated in the progression of scoliotic curves. Measurements of Bone Mineral Density (BMD) in the lumbar spine by using dual energy absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computer tomography (QCT) have demonstrated a marked reduction in Z-score and osteoporosis. Additionally, serum bone metabolic markers, such as vitamin D, calcium, phosphorus, osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase, have been found to be abnormal. Intraoperative and histological vertebral analysis confirmed that alterations of the trabecular microarchitecture are associated with inadequate bone turnover, indicating generalized bone metabolic defects. At the molecular level, loss of function of neurofibromin dysregulates Ras and Transforming Growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling and leads to altered osteoclastic proliferation, osteoblastic activity and collagen production. Correlation between clinical characteristics and molecular pathways may provide targets for novel therapeutic approaches in NF1.

2022 ◽  
Francesca Porpora ◽  
Valentina Zaro ◽  
Lucia Liccioli ◽  
Alessandra Modi ◽  
Arianna Meoli ◽  

Abstract An innovative protocol for the consolidation of ancient bone remains based on the use of nanometric hydroxyapatite (HAP) was set up and tested through a multidisciplinary approach. A new protocol for the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles was developed, and the composition of the obtained nanomaterial were investigated through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD); sizes, shape and morphology of the synthesized particles were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The consolidation performance was evaluated by testing the new nanomaterial on degraded ancient bone findings. An increase of the mineral density and of the micro-hardness of the bone were observed. The new consolidation method was also tested to assess possible effects on the palaeogenetic analysis and radiocarbon dating on the treated bones. The consolidation treatment has no substantial impact on the genetic characterisation of the skeletal remains and does not introduce any contaminations that could affect radiocarbon dating. This consolidation procedure represents a more compatible conservation tool with respect to traditional procedures: it has been shown that the treatment is effective, easily-applicable and not detrimental for 14C dating and palaeogenetic analysis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Paul Palmqvist ◽  
M. Patrocinio Espigares ◽  
Juan A. Pérez-Claros ◽  
Borja Figueirido ◽  
Antonio Guerra-Merchán ◽  

AbstractVenta Micena, an Early Pleistocene site of the Baza Basin (SE Spain), preserves a rich and diverse assemblage of large mammals. VM3, the main excavation quarry of the site, has been interpreted as a den of the giant hyaena Pachycrocuta brevirostris in the plain that surrounded the Baza palaeolake. Taphonomic analysis of VM3 has shown that the hyaenas scavenged the prey previously hunted by the hypercarnivores, transported their remains to the communal den, and consumed the skeletal parts according to their marrow contents and mineral density. In a recent paper (Luzón et al. in Sci Rep 11:13977, 10.1038/s41598-021-93261-1, 2021), a small sample of remains unearthed from VM4, an excavation quarry ~ 350 m distant from VM3, is analysed. The authors indicate several differences in the taphonomic features of this assemblage with VM3, and even suggest that a different carnivore could have been the agent involved in the bone accumulation process. Here, we make a comparative analysis of both quarries and analyse more skeletal remains from VM4. Our results indicate that the assemblages are broadly similar in composition, except for slight differences in the frequency of megaherbivores, carnivores and equids according to NISP values (but not to MNI counts), the degree of bone weathering, and the intensity of bone processing by the hyaenas. Given that VM4 and VM3 were not coeval denning areas of P. brevirostris, these differences suggest that during the years when the skeletal remains were accumulated by the hyaenas at VM3, the rise of the water table of the Baza palaeolake that capped with limestone the bones was delayed compared to VM4, which resulted in their more in-depth consumption by the hyaenas.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Abeer N. Alshukairi ◽  
Hazem Doar ◽  
Afaf Al-Sagheir ◽  
Mona A. Bahasan ◽  
Anas A. Sultan ◽  

BackgroundAlthough genetic diseases are rare, children with such conditions who get infected with COVID-19 tend to have a severe illness requiring hospitalization. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disorder of collagen resulting in fractures and skeletal deformities. Kyphoscoliosis, restrictive lung disease, and pneumonia worsen the prognosis of patients with OI. The use of bisphosphonate improves bone mineral density (BMD) and reduces fractures in OI. There is no literature describing the impact of COVID-19 in patients with OI.MethodologyA retrospective multi-center study was performed in three hospitals in Jeddah and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from March 1st, 2020, until August 31st, 2021, aiming to evaluate the outcome of COVID-19 in patients with OI. Demographics, vaccination status, underlying kyphoscoliosis, functional status, use of bisphosphonate, BMD, and COVID-19 severity, and course were recorded for all patients.ResultsTwelve cases of confirmed COVID-19 were identified among 146 patients with OI. 9 (75%) of patients were less than 18 years, 6 (50%) were male, 5 (41%) had kyphoscoliosis, and 5 (41%) were wheelchair-bound. 6 (50%) received bisphosphonate, and 7(58%) had normal BMD. All patients had mild disease and did not require hospitalization. None of OI the patients with COVID-19 were fully vaccinated before the infection, and some were ineligible for vaccination.ConclusionPatients with OI and COVID-19 in our study recovered without complications, unlike patients with other genetic diseases. Young age and mild illness contributed to the favorable outcome. Half of the patients received bisphosphonate and had normal BMD.

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