transport layer
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (4) ◽  
pp. 741-750
Abolfazl Amraeinia ◽  
Yuhua Zuo ◽  
Jun Zheng ◽  
Zhi Liu ◽  
Guangze Zhang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 138 ◽  
pp. 106303
Baixin Liu ◽  
Guangshuai Sun ◽  
Qian Sun ◽  
Yuzhen Lv ◽  
Meng Huang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 128 (2) ◽  
Mpilo W. Dlamini ◽  
Xolani G. Mbuyise ◽  
Genene T. Mola

2022 ◽  
Vishal Gupta ◽  
Anju Srivast ◽  
Reena Jain ◽  
Vijay Kumar Sharma ◽  
Lalit Kumar

Abstract This paper focuses on the fabrication of an ITO-free plasmonic assisted inverted organic solar cell (OSC) constituting aluminium doped zinc oxide (AZO) as front cathode and ultraviolet (UV) filtering layer. The gold nanoflowers are introduced in the device to increase the efficiency using localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) shown by plasmonic nanoparticles. We used GPVDM software to first optimize the cell, based on the geometry AZO/ZnO/PTB7:PC71BM/MoO3/Ag where AZO acts as the transparent conducting oxide (TCO) cathode and UV filter, zinc oxide (ZnO) behaves as the electron transport layer (ETL), Thieno[3,4 b]thiophene-alt-benzodithiophene: [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PTB7: PC71BM) mixture as the active layer, molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) as the hole transport layer (HTL) and silver (Ag) serves as the anode layer. By modelling, we find that the optimized device with maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) includes 10 nm thick HTL, 200 nm thick photoactive layer and ETL thickness of 30 nm. Using the optimized thicknesses, we have fabricated three structurally identical inverted OSCs: first having AZO as the front cathode (AZO based device); second with ITO as the front cathode (ITO based control device); third includes AZO as cathode and plasmonic gold nanoflowers embedded inside the active layer (plasmonic assisted AZO based device). The AZO based device exhibited the PCE value of 6.19%, slightly less than the efficiency of 6.83% for ITO based control device. However, a remarkable increase in the lifetime was achieved for AZO based device under UV assisted acceleration ageing test. The stability enhancement of AZO based device is because of the UV filtering properties of AZO which prevent degradation in the device due to UV exposure. Also, the PCE of AZO based device was further enhanced to 7.01% when plasmonic gold nanoparticles were included in the active layer. This work provides a feasible way to develop an ITO free plasmonic assisted inverted organic solar cell to achieve cost-effectiveness, high efficiency and stability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Dong In Kim ◽  
Ji Won Lee ◽  
Rak Hyun Jeong ◽  
Jin-Hyo Boo

AbstractOver the past number of years, the power conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells has remained at 25.5%, reflecting a respectable result for the general incorporation of organometallic trihalide perovskite solar cells. However, perovskite solar cells still suffer from long-term stability issues. Perovskite decomposes upon exposure to moisture, thermal, and UV-A light. Studies related to this context have remained ongoing. Recently, research was mainly conducted on the stability of perovskite against non-radiative recombination. This study improved a critical instability in perovskite solar cells arising from non-radiative recombination and UV-A light using a passivation layer. The passivation layer comprised a polyaniline (PANI) polymer as an interfacial modifier inserted between the active layer and the electron transport layer. Accordingly, the UV-A light did not reach the active layer and confined the Pb2+ ions at PANI passivation layer. This study optimized the perovskite solar cells by controlling the concentration, thickness and drying conditions of the PANI passivation layer. As a result, the efficiency of the perovskite solar cell was achieved 15.1% and showed over 84% maintain in efficiency in the ambient air for one month using the 65 nm PANI passivation layer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
D. G. K. Kalara Namawardana ◽  
R. M. Geethanjana Wanigasekara ◽  
W. T. M. Aruna P. K. Wanninayake ◽  
K. M. D. Charith Jayathilaka ◽  
Ruwan P. Wijesundera ◽  

Abstract Polymer based organic solar cells (OSCs) are of tremendous interest as suitable candidates for producing clean and renewable energy in recent years. In this study, inverted OSCs on stainless steel (SS) substrate with zinc oxide (ZnO) as the electron selective transport layer (ESTL), are investigated, occupying bulk heterojunction blend of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as the active material and poly-(4,3-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as the hole transport layer (HTL). The device structure is SS/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Au. ZnO films are prepared by spin coating and electrodeposition techniques, followed by annealing under ambient conditions. The insertion of ZnO layer between the SS substrate and active layer has improved short-circuit current (J sc), open-circuit voltage (V oc), fill factor (FF), and power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to those of the reference cell without ZnO layer, achieving the highest efficiency of 0.66% for the device with spin coated ZnO from sol–gel technique. This enhancement can be attributed to the effective electron extraction and the increased crystallinity of ZnO after annealing treatments at higher temperatures as further confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 534
Nasr Abosata ◽  
Saba Al-Rubaye ◽  
Gokhan Inalhan

The Internet of Things (IoT) connects billions of sensors to share and collect data at any time and place. The Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is one of the most important IoT applications. IoT supports AMI to collect data from smart sensors, analyse and measure abnormalities in the energy consumption pattern of sensors. However, two-way communication in distributed sensors is sensitive and tends towards security and privacy issues. Before deploying distributed sensors, data confidentiality and privacy and message authentication for sensor devices and control messages are the major security requirements. Several authentications and encryption protocols have been developed to provide confidentiality and integrity. However, many sensors in distributed systems, resource constraint smart sensors, and adaptability of IoT communication protocols in sensors necessitate designing an efficient and lightweight security authentication scheme. This paper proposes a Payload Encryption-based Optimisation Scheme for lightweight authentication (PEOS) on distributed sensors. The PEOS integrates and optimises important features of Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) in Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) architecture instead of implementing the DTLS in a separate channel. The proposed work designs a payload encryption scheme and an Optimised Advanced Encryption Standard (OP-AES). The PEOS modifies the DTLS handshaking and retransmission processes in PEOS using payload encryption and NACK messages, respectively. It also removes the duplicate features of the protocol version and sequence number without impacting the performance of CoAP. Moreover, the PEOS attempts to improve the CoAP over distributed sensors in the aspect of optimised AES operations, such as parallel execution of S-boxes in SubBytes and delayed Mixcolumns. The efficiency of PEOS authentication is evaluated on Conitki OS using the Cooja simulator for lightweight security and authentication. The proposed scheme attains better throughput while minimising the message size overhead by 9% and 23% than the existing payload-based mutual authentication PbMA and basic DTLS/CoAP scheme in random network topologies with less than 50 nodes.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document