Advanced Metering
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Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 534
Nasr Abosata ◽  
Saba Al-Rubaye ◽  
Gokhan Inalhan

The Internet of Things (IoT) connects billions of sensors to share and collect data at any time and place. The Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is one of the most important IoT applications. IoT supports AMI to collect data from smart sensors, analyse and measure abnormalities in the energy consumption pattern of sensors. However, two-way communication in distributed sensors is sensitive and tends towards security and privacy issues. Before deploying distributed sensors, data confidentiality and privacy and message authentication for sensor devices and control messages are the major security requirements. Several authentications and encryption protocols have been developed to provide confidentiality and integrity. However, many sensors in distributed systems, resource constraint smart sensors, and adaptability of IoT communication protocols in sensors necessitate designing an efficient and lightweight security authentication scheme. This paper proposes a Payload Encryption-based Optimisation Scheme for lightweight authentication (PEOS) on distributed sensors. The PEOS integrates and optimises important features of Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) in Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) architecture instead of implementing the DTLS in a separate channel. The proposed work designs a payload encryption scheme and an Optimised Advanced Encryption Standard (OP-AES). The PEOS modifies the DTLS handshaking and retransmission processes in PEOS using payload encryption and NACK messages, respectively. It also removes the duplicate features of the protocol version and sequence number without impacting the performance of CoAP. Moreover, the PEOS attempts to improve the CoAP over distributed sensors in the aspect of optimised AES operations, such as parallel execution of S-boxes in SubBytes and delayed Mixcolumns. The efficiency of PEOS authentication is evaluated on Conitki OS using the Cooja simulator for lightweight security and authentication. The proposed scheme attains better throughput while minimising the message size overhead by 9% and 23% than the existing payload-based mutual authentication PbMA and basic DTLS/CoAP scheme in random network topologies with less than 50 nodes.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 373
Ivan Popović ◽  
Aleksandar Rakić ◽  
Ivan D. Petruševski

This effort to make the power grid more intelligent is tightly coupled with the deployment of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) as an integral part of the future vision of smart grid. The goal of AMI is to provide necessary information for the consumers and utilities to accurately monitor and manage energy consumption and pricing in real time. Immediate benefits are enhanced transparency and efficiency of energy usage and the improvement of customer services. Although the road map toward successful AMI deployment is clearly defined, many challenges and issues are to be solved regarding the design of AMI. In this paper, a multi-agent AMI based on the fog-computing approach is presented. Architecture follows structural decomposition of AMI functionalities encapsulated in a form of local and area-specific service components that reside at the different tiers of hierarchically organized AMI deployment. Fog computing concepts provide the framework to effectively solve the problems of creating refined and scalable solutions capable of meeting the requirements of the AMI as a part of future smart grid. On the other hand, agent-based design enables concurrent execution of AMI operations across the distributed system architecture, in the same time improving performance of its execution and preserving the scalability of the AMI solution. The real-time performance of the proposed AMI solution, related to the periodic and on-demand acquisition of metering data from the connected electricity meters, was successfully verified during one year of pilot project operation. The detailed analysis of the performance of AMI operation regarding data collection, communication and data availability across the deployed pilot AMI, covering several transformer station areas with diverse grid topologies, is also presented.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1335-1359
Sadeeb Simon Ottenburger ◽  
Thomas Münzberg ◽  
Misha Strittmatter

The generation and supply of electricity is currently about to undergo a fundamental transition that includes extensive development of smart grids. Smart grids are huge and complex networks consisting of a vast number of devices and entities which are connected with each other. This opens new variations of disruption scenarios which can increase the vulnerability of a power distribution network. However, the network topology of a smart grid has significant effects on urban resilience particularly referring to the adequate provision of infrastructures. Thus, topology massively codetermines the degree of urban resilience, i.e. different topologies enable different strategies of power distribution. Therefore, this article introduces a concept of criticality adapted to a power system relying on an advanced metering infrastructure. The authors propose a two-stage operationalization of this concept that refers to the design phase of a smart grid and its operation mode, targeting at an urban resilient power flow during power shortage.

2022 ◽  
pp. 925-941
Gurkan Tuna ◽  
Resul Daş ◽  
Vehbi Cagri Gungor

Smart grid is a modern power grid infrastructure for improved efficiency, reliability, and safety, with smooth integration of renewable and alternative energy sources, through automated control and modern communications technologies. The smart grid offers several advantages over traditional power grids such as reduced operational costs and opening new markets to utility providers, direct communication with customer premises through advanced metering infrastructure, self-healing in case of power drops or outage, providing security against several types of attacks, and preserving power quality by increasing link quality. Typically, a heterogeneous set of networking technologies is found in the smart grid. In this chapter, smart grid communications technologies along with their advantages and disadvantages are explained. Moreover, research challenges and open research issues are provided.

2022 ◽  
pp. 529-550
Elias Yaacoub

The chapter investigates the scheduling load added on a long-term evolution (LTE) and/or LTE-Advanced (LTEA) network when automatic meter reading (AMR) in advanced metering infrastructures (AMI) is performed using internet of things (IoT) deployments of smart meters in the smart grid. First, radio resource management algorithms to perform dynamic scheduling of the meter transmissions are proposed and shown to allow the accommodation of a large number of smart meters within a limited coverage area. Then, potential techniques for reducing the signaling load between the meters and base stations are proposed and analyzed. Afterwards, advanced concepts from LTE-A, namely carrier aggregation (CA) and relay stations (RSs) are investigated in conjunction with the proposed algorithms in order to accommodate a larger number of smart meters without disturbing cellular communications.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 13863
Yana Akhtyrska ◽  
Franz Fuerst

This study examines the impact of energy management and productivity-enhancing measures, implemented as part of LEED Existing Buildings Operations and Management (EBOM) certification, on source energy use intensity and rental premiums of office spaces using data on four major US markets. Energy management practices, comprised of commissioning and advanced metering, may reduce energy usage. Conversely, improving air quality and occupant comfort in an effort to increase worker productivity may in turn lead to higher overall energy consumption. The willingness to pay for these features in rental office buildings is hypothesised to depend not only on the extent to which productivity gains enhance the profits of a commercial tenant but also on the lease arrangements for passing any energy savings to the tenant. We apply a difference-in-differences method at a LEED EBOM certification group level and a multi-level modelling approach with a panel data structure. The results indicate that energy management and indoor environment practices have the expected effect on energy consumption as described above. However, the magnitude of the achieved rental premiums appears to be independent of the lease type.

Juan David Marín García ◽  
Juan David Marin Jimenez ◽  
Sandra Ximena Carvajal Quintero

This paper aims to analyze mechanisms such as the Energy management systems approach in industry 4.0. The paper is a review of techniques for optimizing energy consumption with energy efficiency, advanced metering infrastructure and rational and efficient use of energy to reduce the pollution as well as to strengthen Industry 4.0 models and the monitoring and management opportunities that exist with the implementation of this models in Colombia.

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