mental status
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2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (1) ◽  
pp. 45-57
Sara C. LaHue ◽  
Vanja C. Douglas

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Yafen Liu ◽  
Yue Wang ◽  
Huan Mai ◽  
YuanYuan Chen ◽  
Baiyi Liu ◽  

Abstract Background Compared with immunocompetent patients, immunosuppressed patients have higher morbidity and mortality, a longer duration of viral shedding, more frequent complications, and more antiviral resistance during influenza infections. However, few data on this population in China have been reported. We analysed the clinical characteristics, effects of antiviral therapy, and risk factors for admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and death in this population after influenza infections and explored the influenza vaccination situation for this population. Methods We analysed 111 immunosuppressed inpatients who were infected with influenza virus during the 2015–2020 influenza seasons. Medical data were collected through the electronic medical record system and analysed. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistics analysis were used to identify risk factors. Results The most common cause of immunosuppression was malignancies being treated with chemotherapy (64.0%, 71/111), followed by haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) (23.4%, 26/111). The most common presenting symptoms were fever and cough. Dyspnoea, gastrointestinal symptoms and altered mental status were more common in HSCT patients than in patients with immunosuppression due to other causes. Approximately 14.4% (16/111) of patients were admitted to the ICU, and 9.9% (11/111) of patients died. Combined and double doses of neuraminidase inhibitors did not significantly reduce the risk of admission to the ICU or death. Risk factors for admission to the ICU were dyspnoea, coinfection with other pathogens and no antiviral treatment within 48 h. The presence of dyspnoea and altered mental status were independently associated with death. Only 2.7% (3/111) of patients less than 12 months old had received a seasonal influenza vaccine. Conclusion Fever and other classic symptoms of influenza may be absent in immunosuppressed recipients, especially in HSCT patients. Conducting influenza virus detection at the first presentation seems to be a good choice for early diagnosis. Clinicians should pay extra attention to immunosuppressed patients with dyspnoea, altered mental status, coinfection with other pathogens and no antiviral treatment within 48 h because these patients have a high risk of severe illness. Inactivated influenza vaccines are recommended for immunosuppressed patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Xueru Duan ◽  
Jun Huang ◽  
Murui Zheng ◽  
Wenjing Zhao ◽  
Lixian Lao ◽  

Abstract Background No studies investigated the whole effect of modifiable lifestyle factors on OSA risk. This study aimed to examine the individual and combined effects of lifestyle factors on OSA risk among Chinese adults. Methods This cross-sectional study included 9733 participants aged 35 to 74 years from the baseline survey of Guangzhou Heart Study. OSA was evaluated by Berlin Questionnaire. The healthy lifestyle score (HLS), representing the overall effect of lifestyles, was derived from seven lifestyle factors: active smoking, passive smoking, alcohol, diet, waist-hip ratio, leisure-time physical activity, and mental status. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using the multivariate logistic regression model. Results 8107 participants were divided into the non-OSA group and 1626 participants into the OSA group. No passive smoking (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.74–0.94), healthy waist-hip ratio (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.58–0.77) and healthy mental status (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0. 29–0.73) were associated with a reduced risk of OSA after adjusting for confounders, while others not. Participants with higher HLS were negatively associated with OSA risk (P-trend < 0.001). In comparison to the participants with 0–3 HLS, the OR for participants with 4, 5, 6, and 7 HLS was 0.68 (95% CI 0.56–0.84), 0.71 (95% CI 0.59–0.86), 0.62 (95% CI 0.51–0.76) and 0.49 (95% CI 0.37–0.65) after adjusting for confounders. Every 1-score increment of HLS was associated with a 13% lower risk of OSA. Conclusions The results suggest that HLS reflecting the combined effect of multiple-dimensional lifestyle factors was inversely associated with OSA risk. Preventive strategies integrating multiple lifestyle factors may provide a more feasible approach for OSA prevention.

2022 ◽  
pp. 109980042110651
Tingting Liu ◽  
Hongjin Li ◽  
Yvette P. Conley ◽  
Brian A. Primack ◽  
Jing Wang ◽  

Introduction Aging is associated with subtle cognitive decline in attention, memory, executive function, processing speed, and reasoning. Although lower brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been linked to cognitive decline among older adults, it is not known if the association differs among individuals with various BDNF Val66Met (rs6265) genotypes. In addition, it is not clear whether these associations vary by hand grip strength or physical activity (PA). Methods A total of 2904 older adults were included in this study using data from the Health and Retirement Study. Associations between serum BDNF and measures of cognitive function were evaluated using multivariable linear regression models stratified by Met allele status. PA and hand grip strength were added to the model to evaluate whether including these variables altered associations between serum BDNF and cognition. Results Mean age was 71.4 years old, and mean body mass index was 28.3 kg/m2. Serum BDNF levels were positively associated with higher total cognitive score (beta = 0.34, p = .07), mental status (beta = 0.16, p = .07), and word recall (beta = 0.22, p =.04) among Met carriers, while serum BDNF levels were negatively associated with mental status (beta = −0.09, p = .07) among non-Met carriers. Furthermore, associations changed when hand grip strength was added to the model but not when PA was added to the model. Conclusions The BDNF Val66Met variant may moderate the association between serum BDNF levels and cognitive function in older adults. Furthermore, such associations differ according to hand grip strength but not PA.

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