immunosuppressed patients
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2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Yafen Liu ◽  
Yue Wang ◽  
Huan Mai ◽  
YuanYuan Chen ◽  
Baiyi Liu ◽  

Abstract Background Compared with immunocompetent patients, immunosuppressed patients have higher morbidity and mortality, a longer duration of viral shedding, more frequent complications, and more antiviral resistance during influenza infections. However, few data on this population in China have been reported. We analysed the clinical characteristics, effects of antiviral therapy, and risk factors for admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and death in this population after influenza infections and explored the influenza vaccination situation for this population. Methods We analysed 111 immunosuppressed inpatients who were infected with influenza virus during the 2015–2020 influenza seasons. Medical data were collected through the electronic medical record system and analysed. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistics analysis were used to identify risk factors. Results The most common cause of immunosuppression was malignancies being treated with chemotherapy (64.0%, 71/111), followed by haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) (23.4%, 26/111). The most common presenting symptoms were fever and cough. Dyspnoea, gastrointestinal symptoms and altered mental status were more common in HSCT patients than in patients with immunosuppression due to other causes. Approximately 14.4% (16/111) of patients were admitted to the ICU, and 9.9% (11/111) of patients died. Combined and double doses of neuraminidase inhibitors did not significantly reduce the risk of admission to the ICU or death. Risk factors for admission to the ICU were dyspnoea, coinfection with other pathogens and no antiviral treatment within 48 h. The presence of dyspnoea and altered mental status were independently associated with death. Only 2.7% (3/111) of patients less than 12 months old had received a seasonal influenza vaccine. Conclusion Fever and other classic symptoms of influenza may be absent in immunosuppressed recipients, especially in HSCT patients. Conducting influenza virus detection at the first presentation seems to be a good choice for early diagnosis. Clinicians should pay extra attention to immunosuppressed patients with dyspnoea, altered mental status, coinfection with other pathogens and no antiviral treatment within 48 h because these patients have a high risk of severe illness. Inactivated influenza vaccines are recommended for immunosuppressed patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 421
Yamile Zabana ◽  
Ignacio Marín-Jiménez ◽  
Iago Rodríguez-Lago ◽  
Isabel Vera ◽  
María Dolores Martín-Arranz ◽  

We aim to describe the incidence and source of contagion of COVID-19 in patients with IBD, as well as the risk factors for a severe course and long-term sequelae. This is a prospective observational study of IBD and COVID-19 included in the ENEIDA registry (53,682 from 73 centres) between March–July 2020 followed-up for 12 months. Results were compared with data of the general population (National Centre of Epidemiology and Catalonia). A total of 482 patients with COVID-19 were identified. Twenty-eight percent were infected in the work environment, and 48% were infected by intrafamilial transmission, despite having good adherence to lockdown. Thirty-five percent required hospitalization, 7.9% had severe COVID-19 and 3.7% died. Similar data were reported in the general population (hospitalisation 19.5%, ICU 2.1% and mortality 4.6%). Factors related to death and severe COVID-19 were being aged ≥ 60 years (OR 7.1, 95% CI: 1.8–27 and 4.5, 95% CI: 1.3–15.9), while having ≥2 comorbidities increased mortality (OR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.3–11.6). None of the drugs for IBD were related to severe COVID-19. Immunosuppression was definitively stopped in 1% of patients at 12 months. The prognosis of COVID-19 in IBD, even in immunosuppressed patients, is similar to that in the general population. Thus, there is no need for more strict protection measures in IBD.

2022 ◽  
pp. annrheumdis-2021-221558
Michael Bonelli ◽  
Daniel Mrak ◽  
Selma Tobudic ◽  
Daniela Sieghart ◽  
Maximilian Koblischke ◽  

ObjectivesSARS‐CoV‐2-induced COVID-19 has led to exponentially rising mortality, particularly in immunosuppressed patients, who inadequately respond to conventional COVID-19 vaccination.MethodsIn this blinded randomised clinical trial, we compare the efficacy and safety of an additional booster vaccination with a vector versus mRNA vaccine in non-seroconverted patients. We assigned 60 patients under rituximab treatment, who did not seroconvert after their primary mRNA vaccination with either BNT162b2 (Pfizer–BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna), to receive a third dose, either using the same mRNA or the vector vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford–AstraZeneca). Patients were stratified according to the presence of peripheral B cells. The primary efficacy endpoint was the difference in the SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroconversion rate between vector (heterologous) and mRNA (homologous) vaccinated patients by week 4. Key secondary endpoints included the overall seroconversion and cellular immune response; safety was assessed at week 1 and week 4.ResultsSeroconversion rates at week 4 were comparable between vector (6/27 patients, 22%) and mRNA (9/28, 32%) vaccines (p=0.6). Overall, 27% of patients seroconverted; specific T cell responses were observed in 20/20 (100%) vector versus 13/16 (81%) mRNA vaccinated patients. Newly induced humoral and/or cellular responses occurred in 9/11 (82%) patients. 3/37 (8%) of patients without and 12/18 (67%) of the patients with detectable peripheral B cells seroconverted. No serious adverse events, related to immunisation, were observed.ConclusionsThis enhanced humoral and/or cellular immune response supports an additional booster vaccination in non-seroconverted patients irrespective of a heterologous or homologous vaccination regimen.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Maria Irene Bellini ◽  
Daniele Fresilli ◽  
Augusto Lauro ◽  
Gianluca Mennini ◽  
Massimo Rossi ◽  

Background. The suspension of the surgical activity, the burden of the infection in immunosuppressed patients, and the comorbidities underlying end-stage organ disease have impacted transplant programs significantly, even life-saving procedures, such as liver transplantation. Methods. A review of the literature was conducted to explore the challenges faced by transplant programs and the adopted strategies to overcome them, with a focus on indications for imaging in liver transplant candidates. Results. Liver transplantation relies on an appropriate imaging method for its success. During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, chest CT showed an additional value to detect early signs of SARS-CoV-2 infection and other screening modalities are less accurate than radiology. Conclusion. There is an emerging recognition of the chest CT value to recommend its use and help COVID-19 detection in patients. This examination appears highly sensitive for liver transplant candidates and recipients, who otherwise would have not undergone it, particularly when asymptomatic.

Alaleh Rezalotfi ◽  
Lea Fritz ◽  
Reinhold Förster ◽  
Berislav Bošnjak

Adaptive T cell immunotherapy holds great promise for the successful treatment of leukemia as well as other types of cancers. More recently, it was also shown to be an effective treatment option for chronic virus infections in immunosuppressed patients. Autologous or allogeneic T cells used for immunotherapy are usually genetically modified to express novel T cell or chimeric antigen receptors. The production of such cells was significantly simplified with the CRISPR/Cas system allowing deletion or insertion of novel genes at specific locations within the genome. In this review, we describe recent methodological breakthroughs important for the conduction of these genetic modifications, summarize crucial points to be considered when conducting such experiments, and highlight the potential pitfalls of these approaches.

Sumana Kunmongkolwut ◽  
Chatchawan Amornkarnjanawat ◽  
Ekarat Phattarataratip

AbstractEpstein–Barr virus (EBV)-positive mucocutaneous ulcer (EBVMCU) is a unique clinicopathologic entity of lymphoproliferative disorder, occurring in immunosuppressed patients. Due to its rarity, EBVMCU may be under-recognized by clinicians as well as pathologists. In addition, its clinical and histopathologic features overlap with other benign and malignant conditions, making a diagnosis challenging. This report presents an unusual case of multifocal oral EBVMCUs in a 52-year-old female patient with rheumatoid arthritis, receiving the combination of methotrexate and leflunomide for 5 years. The patient presented with persistent multiple large painful ulcers involving her palate and gingiva for 6 months. The histopathologic examination revealed extensive ulceration with diffuse polymorphic inflammatory infiltrate admixed with scattered atypical lymphoid cells showing occasional Hodgkin and Reed/Sternberg-like cell features. These atypical cells showed immunoreactivity for CD20, CD30 and MUM1/IRF4. EBV-encoded small RNA in situ hybridization was positive, validating the presence of EBV-infected cells. Two months after discontinuation of both immunosuppressive medications, oral lesions gradually regressed. At 9-month follow-up, no evidence of relapsing oral EBVMCU has been observed. The multifocal presentation of EBVMCU is rare and could be resulted from the overwhelming immune suppression by long-term use of dual immunosuppressants. Its diagnosis requires comprehensive correlation of patient history, clinical findings, histopathologic, and immunophenotypic features. The ability of EBVMCU to regress following removal of immunosuppressive causes is in drastic contrast to a variety of its potential clinical and histopathologic mimics. Therefore, accurate diagnosis is crucial to avoid unnecessary patient management and achieve optimal patient outcomes.

PLoS Genetics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1010001
Ana Cristina Colabardini ◽  
Fang Wang ◽  
Zhengqiang Miao ◽  
Lakhansing Pardeshi ◽  
Clara Valero ◽  

Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis, which is caused by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, is a life-threatening infection for immunosuppressed patients. Chromatin structure regulation is important for genome stability maintenance and has the potential to drive genome rearrangements and affect virulence and pathogenesis of pathogens. Here, we performed the first A. fumigatus global chromatin profiling of two histone modifications, H3K4me3 and H3K9me3, focusing on the two most investigated A. fumigatus clinical isolates, Af293 and CEA17. In eukaryotes, H3K4me3 is associated with active transcription, while H3K9me3 often marks silent genes, DNA repeats, and transposons. We found that H3K4me3 deposition is similar between the two isolates, while H3K9me3 is more variable and does not always represent transcriptional silencing. Our work uncovered striking differences in the number, locations, and expression of transposable elements between Af293 and CEA17, and the differences are correlated with H3K9me3 modifications and higher genomic variations among strains of Af293 background. Moreover, we further showed that the Af293 strains from different laboratories actually differ in their genome contents and found a frequently lost region in chromosome VIII. For one such Af293 variant, we identified the chromosomal changes and demonstrated their impacts on its secondary metabolites production, growth and virulence. Overall, our findings not only emphasize the influence of genome heterogeneity on A. fumigatus fitness, but also caution about unnoticed chromosomal variations among common laboratory strains.

2022 ◽  
Dinesh Mohanraj ◽  
Samuel Baldwin ◽  
Satbeer Singh ◽  
Alun Gordon ◽  
Alison Whitelegg

Abstract Objective: SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations have demonstrated vaccine-immunogenicity in healthy volunteers, however, efficacy in immunosuppressed patients is less well characterised. There is an urgent need to address the impact of immunosuppression on vaccine immunogenicity. Methods: Serological, T-cell ELISpot, cytokines and immunophenotyping assays were used to assess vaccine responses (either BNT162b2 mRNA or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) in double-vaccinated patients receiving immunosuppression for renal transplants or haematological malignancies (n=13). Immunological responses in immunosuppressed patients (VACC-IS) were compared to immunocompetent vaccinated (VACC-IC, n=12), unvaccinated (UNVACC, n=11) and infection-naïve unvaccinated (HC, n=3) cohorts. All participants, except HC, had prior COVID-19 infection. Results: T-cell responses were identical between VACC-IS and VACC-IC (92%) to spike-peptide (S) stimulation. UNVACC had the highest T-cell non-responders (n=3), whereas VACC-IC and VACC-IS both had one T-cell non-responder. No significant differences in humoral responses were observed between VACC-IC and VACC-IS, with 92% (12/13) of VACC-IS patients demonstrating seropositivity. One VACC-IS failed to seroconvert, however had detectable T-cell responses. All VACC-IC participants were seropositive for anti-spike antibodies. VACC-IS and VACC-IC participants elicited strong Th1 cytokine response with immunodominance towards S-peptide. Differences in T-cell immunophenotyping were seen between VACC-IS and VACC-IC, with lower CD8+ activation and T-effector memory phenotype observed in VACC-IS. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are immunogenic in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy, with responses comparable to vaccinated immunocompetent participants. Lower humoral responses were seen in patients treated with B-cell depleting therapeutics, but with preserved T-cell responses. We suggest further work to correlate both protective immunity and longevity of these responses in both healthy and immunosuppressed patients.

2022 ◽  
Lu M Yang ◽  
Cristina Costales ◽  
Muthukumar Ramanathan ◽  
Philip L. Bulterys ◽  
Kanagavel Murugesan ◽  

Importance: Data on the humoral and cellular immune response to primary and booster SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in immunosuppressed patients is limited. Objective: To determine humoral and cellular response to primary and booster vaccination in immunosuppressed patients and identify variables associated with poor response. Design: Retrospective observational cohort study. Setting: Large healthcare system in Northern California. Participants: This study included patients fully vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 (mRNA-1273, BNT162b2, or Ad26.COV2.S) who underwent clinical testing for anti-SARS-SoV-2 S1 IgG ELISA (anti-S1 IgG) and SARS-CoV-2 interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) from January 1, 2021 through November 15, 2021. A cohort of 18 immunocompetent volunteer healthcare workers were included as reference. No participants had a prior diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Exposure(s): Immunosuppressive diseases and therapies. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s): Humoral and cellular SARS-CoV-2 vaccine response as measured by anti-S1 IgG and SARS-CoV-2 IGRA, respectively, after primary and booster vaccination. Results: 496 patients (54% female; median age 50 years) were included in this study. Among immunosuppressed patients after primary vaccination, 62% (261/419) had positive anti-S1 IgG and 71% (277/389) had positive IGRA. After booster, 69% (81/118) had positive anti-S1 IgG and 73% (91/124) had positive IGRA. Immunosuppressive factors associated with low rates of humoral response after primary vaccination included anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (n=48, P<.001), sphingosine 1-phsophate (S1P) receptor modulators (n=11, P<.001), mycophenolate (n=78, P=.002), and B cell lymphoma (n=55, P=.004); those associated with low rates of cellular response included S1P receptor modulators (n=11, P<.001) and mycophenolate (n=69, P<.001). Of patients who responded poorly to primary vaccination, 16% (4/25) with hematologic malignancy or primary immunodeficiency developed a significantly increased humoral response after the booster dose, while 52% (14/27) with solid malignancy, solid organ transplantation, or autoimmune disease developed an increased response (P=.009). Only 5% (2/42) of immunosuppressed patients developed a significantly increased cellular response following the booster dose. Conclusions and Relevance: Cellular vaccine response rates were higher than humoral response rates in immunosuppressed individuals after primary vaccination, particularly among those undergoing B cell targeting therapies. However, humoral response can be increased with booster vaccination, even in patients on B cell targeting therapies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
pp. 4
Takumi Hoshimaru ◽  
Ryokichi Yagi ◽  
Shinji Kawabata ◽  
Masahiko Wanibuchi

Background: Tuberculosis is one of the top 10 leading causes of death worldwide. Although tuberculous central complications account for 1% of all tuberculosis patients, there are many cases of medical resistance; and early surgical treatment is required for brain abscess. Reports on tuberculous brain abscesses with dural infiltration are rare, and there are no reports on surgical treatment methods. Case Description: An 81-year-old man was presented with the right arm paresis. His recent medical history included a 6-month course of immunosuppressants, and steroids prescribed for ulcerative colitis, and four antituberculosis drugs had been started 2 months before for relapse of pulmonary tuberculosis at an early age. Head T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with administration of gadolinium showed two ring-enhanced lesions in the left precentral gyrus and continuous with the dura mater. Surgery was performed and he was pathologically diagnosed with a tuberculous brain abscess. Since the pathological diagnosis revealed dura mater invasion, we removed the dura mater and reconstructed by periosteum. After the surgery, the symptoms gradually improved, and the abscess and edema improved when viewed on the image. Despite the administration of steroids for ulcerative colitis without antituberculosis drugs, no recurrence was observed for 1 year. Recurrence of tuberculous brain abscess is a major problem in immunosuppressed patients, but it is considered that the relapse could be prevented by removing the dural infiltration. Conclusion: In cases of tuberculous brain abscess with dural infiltration, it is considered that the recurrence can be prevented even in an immunosuppressed state by removing the dura.

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