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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 119-127
Grace A. McCabe ◽  
Todd Goodwin ◽  
Douglas F. Johnson ◽  
Anthony Fok ◽  

AIM: To report 4 cases of Cryptococcus gattii (C. gattii) species complex infection with diverse ophthalmic manifestations, and to review the literature to examine pathobiology of disease, classical ophthalmic presentations and outcomes, and treatment modalities for this emerging pathogen. METHODS: Cases of C. gattii meningoencephalitis with ophthalmic manifestations were identified via chart review at two institutions in Australia and one institution in the mid-west region of the United States and are reported as a case series. Additionally, a MEDLINE literature review was conducted to identify all reported cases of C. gattii with ophthalmic manifestations from 1990-2020. Cases were reviewed and tabulated, together with our series of patients, in this report. RESULTS: Four cases of C. gattii with ophthalmic manifestations are presented; three from Australia and one from the USA. A literature review identified a total of 331 cases of C. gattii with visual sequelae. The majority of cases occurred in immunocompetent individuals. Blurred vision and diplopia were the most common presenting symptoms, with papilloedema the most common sign, reported in 10%-50% of cases. Visual loss was reported in 10%-53% of cases, as compared to rates of visual loss of 1%-9% in C. neoformans infection. Elevated intracranial pressure, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fungal burden, and abnormal neurological exam at presentation correlated with poor visual outcomes. The mainstays of treatment are anti-fungal agents and aggressive management of intracranial hypertension with serial lumbar punctures. CSF diversion procedures should be considered for refractory cases. Acetazolamide and mannitol are associated with high complication rates, and adjuvant corticosteroids have demonstrated higher mortality rates; these treatments should be avoided. CONCLUSION: Permanent visual loss represents a devastating yet potentially preventable sequelae of C. gattii infection. Intracranial hypertension needs to be recognised early and aggressively managed. Referral to an ophthalmologist/neuro-ophthalmologist in all cases of cryptococcal infection independent of visual symptoms at time of diagnosis is recommended.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Elvin M. Mendez

Abstract Background Allergic rhinitis is the most common allergic disease encountered in a primary care setting. Diagnosis is often made clinically based on response to empiric therapy. However, with long-term treatment failure and/or atypical disease presentation, a differential diagnosis should be considered. The following is a report of an unusual and rare presentation of a subglottic tracheal angiomyomatous hamartoma in an adolescent, treated for many years as allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma. Case presentation A 12-year-old Caucasian was referred to the allergy clinic with a lifetime history of bronchospasms and rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms, treated for many years for asthma and environmental allergies. Cough, posterior nasal drainage, self-described “choking on phlegm,” and a sensation of “a flap in the throat,”, worsened 5 months prior to the initial evaluation. Puncture skin testing for common environmental allergens was negative. Spirometry, performed due to history of chronic cough, showed blunting of the forced expiratory phase. A chest X-ray, immediately ordered to rule out possible extrapulmonary obstruction, showed bilateral bibasilar infiltrates. A noncontrast computerized tomographic scan of the chest, ordered to further elucidate X-ray findings, revealed a subglottic tracheal mass. Following a subsequent transfer and admission to a tertiary hospital center, microlaryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, and microsuspension laryngoscopy were performed to remove the tracheal mass. Pathology confirmed squamous mucosa with polypoid angiomyomatous changes and chronic inflammatory features consistent with angiomyomatous hamartoma. Surgical intervention was successful, and follow-up 1 year postoperatively revealed a healthy, asymptomatic adolescent child with normal lung function. Conclusions Although posterior nasal drainage and cough are typical presenting symptoms in the general patient population, they may be clinically impactful as they could disguise more serious medical conditions. A detailed history and careful physical examination may provide a high index of suspicion of disease, and can help work the differential diagnosis. This case presentation is the first documentation of subglottic hamartoma reported in the pediatric literature with clinical manifestation of environmental allergy and asthma symptoms.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Yafen Liu ◽  
Yue Wang ◽  
Huan Mai ◽  
YuanYuan Chen ◽  
Baiyi Liu ◽  

Abstract Background Compared with immunocompetent patients, immunosuppressed patients have higher morbidity and mortality, a longer duration of viral shedding, more frequent complications, and more antiviral resistance during influenza infections. However, few data on this population in China have been reported. We analysed the clinical characteristics, effects of antiviral therapy, and risk factors for admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and death in this population after influenza infections and explored the influenza vaccination situation for this population. Methods We analysed 111 immunosuppressed inpatients who were infected with influenza virus during the 2015–2020 influenza seasons. Medical data were collected through the electronic medical record system and analysed. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistics analysis were used to identify risk factors. Results The most common cause of immunosuppression was malignancies being treated with chemotherapy (64.0%, 71/111), followed by haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) (23.4%, 26/111). The most common presenting symptoms were fever and cough. Dyspnoea, gastrointestinal symptoms and altered mental status were more common in HSCT patients than in patients with immunosuppression due to other causes. Approximately 14.4% (16/111) of patients were admitted to the ICU, and 9.9% (11/111) of patients died. Combined and double doses of neuraminidase inhibitors did not significantly reduce the risk of admission to the ICU or death. Risk factors for admission to the ICU were dyspnoea, coinfection with other pathogens and no antiviral treatment within 48 h. The presence of dyspnoea and altered mental status were independently associated with death. Only 2.7% (3/111) of patients less than 12 months old had received a seasonal influenza vaccine. Conclusion Fever and other classic symptoms of influenza may be absent in immunosuppressed recipients, especially in HSCT patients. Conducting influenza virus detection at the first presentation seems to be a good choice for early diagnosis. Clinicians should pay extra attention to immunosuppressed patients with dyspnoea, altered mental status, coinfection with other pathogens and no antiviral treatment within 48 h because these patients have a high risk of severe illness. Inactivated influenza vaccines are recommended for immunosuppressed patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yashvardhan Batta ◽  
Cody King ◽  
John Johnson ◽  
Natasha Haddad ◽  
Myriam Boueri ◽  

COVID-19 patients with pre-existing cardiovascular conditions are at greater risk of severe illness due to the SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) virus. This review evaluates the highest risk factors for these patients, not limited to pre-existing hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, hypercoagulation, ischemic heart disease, and a history of underlying heart conditions. SARS-CoV-2 may also precipitate de novo cardiac complications. The interplay between existing cardiac conditions and de novo cardiac complications is the focus of this review. In particular, SARS-CoV-2 patients present with hypercoagulation conditions, cardiac arrhythmias, as significant complications. Also, cardiac arrhythmias are another well-known cardiovascular-related complication seen in COVID-19 infections and merit discussion in this review. Amid the pandemic, myocardial infarction (MI) has been reported to a high degree in SARS-CoV-2 patients. Currently, the specific causative mechanism of the increased incidence of MI is unclear. However, studies suggest several links to high angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression in myocardial and endothelial cells, systemic hyper-inflammation, an imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand, and loss of ACE2-mediated cardio-protection. Furthermore, hypertension and SARS-CoV-2 infection patients’ prognosis has shown mixed results across current studies. For this reason, an in-depth analysis of the interactions between SARS-CoV2 and the ACE2 cardio-protective mechanism is warranted. Similarly, ACE2 receptors are also expressed in the cerebral cortex tissue, both in neurons and glia. Therefore, it seems very possible for both cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems to be damaged leading to further dysregulation and increased risk of mortality risk. This review aims to discuss the current literature related to potential complications of COVID-19 infection with hypertension and the vasculature, including the cervical one. Finally, age is a significant prognostic indicator among COVID-19 patients. For a mean age group of 70 years, the main presenting symptoms include fever, shortness of breath, and a persistent cough. Elderly patients with cardiovascular comorbidities, particularly hypertension and diabetes, represent a significant group of critical cases with increased case fatality rates. With the current understanding of COVID-19, it is essential to explore the mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 operates to improve clinical outcomes for patients suffering from underlying cardiovascular diseases and reduce the risk of such conditions de novo.

2022 ◽  
Wei Li ◽  
Xue Yang ◽  
Yuan Deng ◽  
Yina Jiang ◽  
Guiping Xu ◽  

Abstract Objective: Glucagonoma is an extremely rare neuroendocrine tumor that arises from pancreatic islet alpha cells. Although glucagonoma is usually accompanied by a variety of characteristic clinical symptoms, early diagnosis is still difficult due to the scarcity of the disease. Methods: In this study, we present the cumulative experiences, clinical characteristics and treatments of seven patients diagnosed with glucagonoma during the past 10 years at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University. Results: The seven patients in our cohort consisted of six females and one male with an average diagnosis age of 40.1 years (range 23-51). The average time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis of glucagonoma was 14 months (range 2-36 months). All the patients visited dermatology firstly for necrolytic migratory erythema (NME) 7/7 (100%), other presenting symptoms included: diabetes mellitus (DM) 4/7 (57%), stomatitis 2/7 (28%), weight loss 4/7 (57%), anemia 4/7 (57%), diarrhea 1/7 (14%), DVT1/7 (14%). Plasma glucagon levels were increased in all patients (range 216.92–3155 pg/mL), and declined after surgery. Imaging studies revealed that four of seven patients had liver metastasis. Six of seven patients received surgical resection, and all of them received somatostatin analogue therapy. Symptoms improved significantly in 6 out of 7 patients. Three of seven patients died of this disease by the time of follow-up. Conclusion: Our data suggest that if persistent NME is associated with DM and high glucagon levels, timely abdominal imaging should be performed to confirm glucagonoma. Once diagnosed, surgery and somatostatin analogues are effective for symptom relief and tumor control.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262439
Deirdré Kruger ◽  
Nicola Lahoud ◽  
Yandiswa Y. Yako ◽  
John Devar ◽  
Martin Smith

Background/Objectives Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive malignancy associated with high metastatic risk. Prognosis remains poor even after resection. Previously our group identified biomarkers that improved diagnostic accuracy in PDAC beyond the established diagnostic tumour marker, CA19-9. Risk factors, symptoms and circulating biomarkers associated with a PDAC diagnosis may differ from those that alter disease progression and metastasis. This study aimed at assessing the risk factors, presenting symptoms and potential prognostic biomarkers in PDAC and determine their relationship with PDAC stage and/or metastatic status. Methods Seventy-two PDAC patients with imaging available for TNM staging at presentation were enrolled following informed consent. Demographic and clinical data were captured. Blood was collected and 38 cytokines/angiogenic factors measured. Nonparametric association tests, univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed using STATA version 14.2. A p-value≤0.05 was considered significant and odds ratios reported for effect size. Results Most risk factors and symptoms did not differ across the stages of cancer. Although male gender and smoking are risk factors for PDAC, the majority of study patients with metastatic PDAC were non-smoking females. In addition to CA19-9, the platelet count (p<0.01), IL-15 (p = 0.02) and GM-CSF (p<0.01) were significant, independent negative predictors of metastatic PDAC. Moreover, using specific cut-off values in a combined panel, the odds in a patient with all three biomarker levels below the cut-offs is 21 times more likely to have metastatic PDAC (p<0.0001). Conclusions Platelet count, IL-15 and GM-CSF are potential prognostic indicators of metastatic disease in PDAC patients from our local South African population.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (1) ◽  
pp. 34-42
Sangita Mithun ◽  
Syed Abul Hassan Md Abdullah ◽  
SM Nurul Irfan

Background: Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) involves various organs of the body causing several biochemical changes which plays an essential role in estimating the patients’ condition and prognosis, directing treatment, and even evaluating the curative effects. The present study aimed to assess the biochemical changes among the COVID-19 patients during early pandemic. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Dhaka among purposively selected 237 confirm COVID-19 cases. Data were collected through face to face interview and review of medical records using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. The study was conducted in the Combined Military Hospital Dhaka from 15 April 2020 to 31 May 2020 Results: Highest number of the respondents were in the age group of 31-40 years (37.1%) with male predominance (83.1%). About 95.6% were Muslim and 58.6% were educated up to secondary level. About 87.8% had contact with a confirmed case and having 47.7%, 37.2%, 15.1% cardiovascular, endocrine and respiratory comorbidities respectively. Fever (34.6%) was the most common presenting symptoms followed by cough (22.9%), sore throat (10.6%). Neutrophilia observed in 26.16%, lymphopenia in 20.7%, thrombocytopenia in 14.3% cases, 30.0% with positive D-dimer test, 22.4% either sepsis or systemic infection in procalcitonin estimation, 28.3% with increased ferritin, 28.7% with positive C reactive protein, 21.1% with increased LDH. Chi-square analysis revealed a statistically significant association between cardiovascular and endocrine diseases with several biochemical changes (p<0.05). Conclusion: Early identification of various biochemical changes would help the physician for appropriate assessment and management. JOPSOM 2021; 40(1): 34-42

2022 ◽  
pp. 074880682110701
Lindsay Y. Chun ◽  
Paul O. Phelps

Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome (MRS) is an uncommon disorder with presenting symptoms that typically involve the face and orofacial structures. It is a difficult diagnosis to make, as it may present with a protracted course of seemingly unrelated dermatological, ocular, and neurological findings. This case report reviews the presentation, workup, and diagnosis of a 75-year-old woman who presented with orofacial swelling, facial palsy, and tongue fissuring that had intermittently recurred over 10 years without a unifying diagnosis. Extensive medical history, photography, laboratory workup, and radiographic imaging were performed to identify the diagnosis of MRS in this patient. Our case highlights the challenge and importance of critically evaluating and consolidating a patient’s history of their present illness, physical examination, and ancillary testing to successfully establish a unifying diagnosis, especially when the diagnosis is relatively rare and diverse in its range of affected populations and symptomatology.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 ◽  
Mary M Czech ◽  
William Ogden ◽  
Rashmi Batra ◽  
Joseph D Cooper

Background: Multilocular thymic cysts (MTCs) in adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are rarely reported. Case Presentation: We describe a case of symptomatic MTC in a male with untreated HIV. A presumptive diagnosis was established based on radiographic imaging and biopsy. Pathologic diagnosis and exclusion of malignancy were ultimately confirmed the following thymectomy. In conjunction with starting antiretroviral therapy, the patient recovered well post-operatively with a resolution of his presenting symptoms. Conclusion: Our case report and review of the literature serve to highlight MTCs as an important clinical entity occurring in persons with HIV.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Le Ma ◽  
Haimei Liu ◽  
Hanyun Tang ◽  
Zhiyong Zhang ◽  
Lixia Zou ◽  

Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate demographic, clinical, laboratory, imaging, histopathology characteristics, and treatment responses of children with Chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO). Methods Retrospective multi-center case series study of pediatric patients diagnosed with CNO treated at five tertiary centers in south China. Results Totally there were 18 patients diagnosed as CNO between 2014 and 2020. The median age of onset was 9.2 years (range 3.7–13.1) and 55.6% were female. Median delay in diagnosis was 10.9 months (range 1.0–72.0). The most frequent presenting symptoms were bone pain (100%) and fever (44.4%). Most patients had more than one lesion (median of 5, range 1–7). Most frequently affected bones were tibiofibula (88.9%) and femur (77.8%). The MRI characteristics mainly presented as bone edema and hyperintensity in bone marrow. Bone biopsy was conducted in 11 patients (61.1%) with inflammatory cells infiltration manifested as chronic osteomyelitis, and none showed bacterial infection or tumor. In treatment, non-steroid anti-inflamatory drugs (NSAIDs) is used as the first-line drug followed by steriods, methotexate (MTX), salazosulfadimidine (SASP), Bisphosphonates and TNF-α inhibitor. Two refractory cases received combination therapy with Bisphosphonates and TNF-α inhibitor, and achieved good therapeutic effect. Conclusions The present study described a multicenter series of CNO from south China and highlighted the clinical features, laboratory tests, imaging characteristics and treatment outcomes. Increasing awareness of this disease is important to decrease time to diagnosis, improve access to treatment, and reduce complications.

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