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2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Yafen Liu ◽  
Yue Wang ◽  
Huan Mai ◽  
YuanYuan Chen ◽  
Baiyi Liu ◽  

Abstract Background Compared with immunocompetent patients, immunosuppressed patients have higher morbidity and mortality, a longer duration of viral shedding, more frequent complications, and more antiviral resistance during influenza infections. However, few data on this population in China have been reported. We analysed the clinical characteristics, effects of antiviral therapy, and risk factors for admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and death in this population after influenza infections and explored the influenza vaccination situation for this population. Methods We analysed 111 immunosuppressed inpatients who were infected with influenza virus during the 2015–2020 influenza seasons. Medical data were collected through the electronic medical record system and analysed. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistics analysis were used to identify risk factors. Results The most common cause of immunosuppression was malignancies being treated with chemotherapy (64.0%, 71/111), followed by haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) (23.4%, 26/111). The most common presenting symptoms were fever and cough. Dyspnoea, gastrointestinal symptoms and altered mental status were more common in HSCT patients than in patients with immunosuppression due to other causes. Approximately 14.4% (16/111) of patients were admitted to the ICU, and 9.9% (11/111) of patients died. Combined and double doses of neuraminidase inhibitors did not significantly reduce the risk of admission to the ICU or death. Risk factors for admission to the ICU were dyspnoea, coinfection with other pathogens and no antiviral treatment within 48 h. The presence of dyspnoea and altered mental status were independently associated with death. Only 2.7% (3/111) of patients less than 12 months old had received a seasonal influenza vaccine. Conclusion Fever and other classic symptoms of influenza may be absent in immunosuppressed recipients, especially in HSCT patients. Conducting influenza virus detection at the first presentation seems to be a good choice for early diagnosis. Clinicians should pay extra attention to immunosuppressed patients with dyspnoea, altered mental status, coinfection with other pathogens and no antiviral treatment within 48 h because these patients have a high risk of severe illness. Inactivated influenza vaccines are recommended for immunosuppressed patients.

2022 ◽  
Qiao Wang ◽  
Lili Feng ◽  
Haohai Zhang ◽  
Juehua Gao ◽  
Changchuin Mao ◽  

Abstract While mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 were highly efficacious against severe illness and hospitalization, they seem to be less effective in preventing infection months after vaccination, especially with the Delta variant. Breakthrough infections might be due to higher infectivity of the variants, relaxed protective measures by the general public in “COVID-19 fatigue”, and/or waning immunity post-vaccination. Determining the neutralizing antibody levels in a longitudinal manner may address this issue, but technical complexity of classic assays precludes easy detection and quick answers. We developed a lateral flow immunoassay NeutraXpress™ (commercial name of the test kit by Antagen Diagnostics, Inc.), and tested fingertip blood samples of subjects receiving either Moderna or Pfizer vaccines at various time points. With this device, we confirmed the reported clinical findings that mRNA vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies quickly wane after 3–6 months. Thus, using rapid tests to monitor neutralizing antibody status could help identify individuals at risk, prevent breakthrough infections and guide social behavior to curtail the spread of COVID-19. Statement of Significance. Mounting evidence suggests that mRNA vaccine-induced neutralizing antibody titres against SARS-CoV-2 wane in 3–6 months. Quick identification of fully vaccinated persons with high risk of breakthrough infections is key to control the COVID-19 pandemic. The described LFIA device having a control/sample dual-lane design serves this purpose with successful field-test data.

F1000Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 1246
Darmadi Darmadi ◽  
Cennikon Pakpahan ◽  
Riska Habriel Ruslie ◽  
Andri Rezano

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) remains a global health problem. COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia have a higher risk for critical illness, mostly complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome. The inflammatory response is critical, and the cytokine storm increases the severity of COVID-19. Many factors could be associated with a cytokine storm but they are incompletely understood. This study presents characteristics of COVID-19 patients and explore the clinical and inflammatory parameters of severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in all severe COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. Peripheral blood was taken for laboratory examination within 24 hours of admission. Haematologic parameters, serum electrolyte, renal function, liver function, pancreas enzyme, D-dimer, inflammatory cytokines interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed in this study. Comparative analyses were done between sex, existing comorbidities, body mass index (BMI), and COVID-19 vaccination status. Results: A total of 80 subjects were included in the study. The most frequent comorbidities found among the subjects were obesity (36.35%) and diabetes (22.5%). Only 13.75% of subjects were vaccinated. Laboratory results indicated leucocytosis and neutrophilia, with a neutrophil-lymphocyte-ratio (NLR) of 7. The mean inflammatory findings (IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, MCP-1), D-dimer, CRP, and lipase increased. Lipase levels were higher in men (p = 0.003) and in comorbidity groups. No significant differences were found among different BMI groups. Lipase, IL-6, and MCP-1 levels were significantly higher (p=0.019, <0.0001, and 0.03, respectively) in the non-vaccinated group. Conclusions: Most patients with severe COVID-19 have comorbidities and increased inflammatory markers.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 147
Abenaya Muralidharan ◽  
Md Bashir Uddin ◽  
Christopher Bauer ◽  
Wenzhe Wu ◽  
Xiaoyong Bao ◽  

The susceptibility to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in early life has been associated with a deficient T-helper cell type 1 (Th1) response. Conversely, healthy adults generally do not exhibit severe illness from RSV infection. In the current study, we investigated whether Th1 cytokine IFN-γ is essential for protection against RSV and RSV-associated comorbidities in adult mice. We found that, distinct from influenza virus, prior RSV infection does not induce significant IFN-γ production and susceptibility to secondary Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in adult wild-type (WT) mice. In ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic mice, RSV super-infection increases airway neutrophil recruitment and inflammatory lung damage but has no significant effect on OVA-induced eosinophilia. Compared with WT controls, RSV infection of asthmatic Ifng−/− mice results in increased airway eosinophil accumulation. However, a comparable increase in eosinophilia was detected in house dust mite (HDM)-induced asthmatic Ifng−/− mice in the absence of RSV infection. Furthermore, neither WT nor Ifng−/− mice exhibit apparent eosinophil infiltration during RSV infection alone. Together, these findings indicate that, despite its critical role in limiting eosinophilic inflammation during asthma, IFN-γ is not essential for protection against RSV-induced exacerbation of asthmatic inflammation in adult mice.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261216
Zhuo Wang ◽  
Yuanyuan Liu ◽  
Luyi Wei ◽  
John S. Ji ◽  
Yang Liu ◽  

Background The global epidemic of novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) has resulted in substantial healthcare resource consumption. Since patients’ hospital length of stay (LoS) is at stake in the process, an investigation of COVID-19 patients’ LoS and its risk factors becomes urgent for a better understanding of regional capabilities to cope with COVID-19 outbreaks. Methods First, we obtained retrospective data of confirmed COVID-19 patients in Sichuan province via National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System (NNDRS) and field surveys, including their demographic, epidemiological, clinical characteristics and LoS. Then we estimated the relationship between LoS and the possibly determinant factors, including demographic characteristics of confirmed patients, individual treatment behavior, local medical resources and hospital grade. The Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox Proportional Hazards Model were applied for single factor and multi-factor survival analysis. Results From January 16, 2020 to March 4, 2020, 538 human cases of COVID-19 infection were laboratory-confirmed, and were hospitalized for treatment, including 271 (50%) patients aged ≥ 45, 285 (53%) males, and 450 patients (84%) with mild symptoms. The median LoS was 19 (interquartile range (IQR): 14–23, range: 3–41) days. Univariate analysis showed that age and clinical grade were strongly related to LoS (P<0.01). Adjusted multivariate analysis showed that the longer LoS was associated with those aged ≥ 45 (Hazard ratio (HR): 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60–0.91), admission to provincial hospital (HR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.54–0.99), and severe illness (HR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.48–0.90). By contrast, the shorter LoS was linked with residential areas with more than 5.5 healthcare workers per 1,000 population (HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.05–1.65). Neither gender factor nor time interval from illness onset to diagnosis showed significant impact on LoS. Conclusions Understanding COVID-19 patients’ hospital LoS and its risk factors is critical for governments’ efficient allocation of resources in respective regions. In areas with older and more vulnerable population and in want of primary medical resources, early reserving and strengthening of the construction of multi-level medical institutions are strongly suggested to cope with COVID-19 outbreaks.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yashvardhan Batta ◽  
Cody King ◽  
John Johnson ◽  
Natasha Haddad ◽  
Myriam Boueri ◽  

COVID-19 patients with pre-existing cardiovascular conditions are at greater risk of severe illness due to the SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) virus. This review evaluates the highest risk factors for these patients, not limited to pre-existing hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, hypercoagulation, ischemic heart disease, and a history of underlying heart conditions. SARS-CoV-2 may also precipitate de novo cardiac complications. The interplay between existing cardiac conditions and de novo cardiac complications is the focus of this review. In particular, SARS-CoV-2 patients present with hypercoagulation conditions, cardiac arrhythmias, as significant complications. Also, cardiac arrhythmias are another well-known cardiovascular-related complication seen in COVID-19 infections and merit discussion in this review. Amid the pandemic, myocardial infarction (MI) has been reported to a high degree in SARS-CoV-2 patients. Currently, the specific causative mechanism of the increased incidence of MI is unclear. However, studies suggest several links to high angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression in myocardial and endothelial cells, systemic hyper-inflammation, an imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand, and loss of ACE2-mediated cardio-protection. Furthermore, hypertension and SARS-CoV-2 infection patients’ prognosis has shown mixed results across current studies. For this reason, an in-depth analysis of the interactions between SARS-CoV2 and the ACE2 cardio-protective mechanism is warranted. Similarly, ACE2 receptors are also expressed in the cerebral cortex tissue, both in neurons and glia. Therefore, it seems very possible for both cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems to be damaged leading to further dysregulation and increased risk of mortality risk. This review aims to discuss the current literature related to potential complications of COVID-19 infection with hypertension and the vasculature, including the cervical one. Finally, age is a significant prognostic indicator among COVID-19 patients. For a mean age group of 70 years, the main presenting symptoms include fever, shortness of breath, and a persistent cough. Elderly patients with cardiovascular comorbidities, particularly hypertension and diabetes, represent a significant group of critical cases with increased case fatality rates. With the current understanding of COVID-19, it is essential to explore the mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 operates to improve clinical outcomes for patients suffering from underlying cardiovascular diseases and reduce the risk of such conditions de novo.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Abeer N. Alshukairi ◽  
Hazem Doar ◽  
Afaf Al-Sagheir ◽  
Mona A. Bahasan ◽  
Anas A. Sultan ◽  

BackgroundAlthough genetic diseases are rare, children with such conditions who get infected with COVID-19 tend to have a severe illness requiring hospitalization. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic disorder of collagen resulting in fractures and skeletal deformities. Kyphoscoliosis, restrictive lung disease, and pneumonia worsen the prognosis of patients with OI. The use of bisphosphonate improves bone mineral density (BMD) and reduces fractures in OI. There is no literature describing the impact of COVID-19 in patients with OI.MethodologyA retrospective multi-center study was performed in three hospitals in Jeddah and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from March 1st, 2020, until August 31st, 2021, aiming to evaluate the outcome of COVID-19 in patients with OI. Demographics, vaccination status, underlying kyphoscoliosis, functional status, use of bisphosphonate, BMD, and COVID-19 severity, and course were recorded for all patients.ResultsTwelve cases of confirmed COVID-19 were identified among 146 patients with OI. 9 (75%) of patients were less than 18 years, 6 (50%) were male, 5 (41%) had kyphoscoliosis, and 5 (41%) were wheelchair-bound. 6 (50%) received bisphosphonate, and 7(58%) had normal BMD. All patients had mild disease and did not require hospitalization. None of OI the patients with COVID-19 were fully vaccinated before the infection, and some were ineligible for vaccination.ConclusionPatients with OI and COVID-19 in our study recovered without complications, unlike patients with other genetic diseases. Young age and mild illness contributed to the favorable outcome. Half of the patients received bisphosphonate and had normal BMD.

Ruobing Wang ◽  
Adam J. Hume ◽  
Mary Lou Beermann ◽  
Chantelle Simone-Roach ◽  
Jonathan Lindstrom-Vautrin ◽  

There is an urgent need to understand how SARS-CoV-2 infects the airway epithelium and in a subset of individuals leads to severe illness or death. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide a near limitless supply of human cells that can be differentiated into cell types of interest, including airway epithelium, for disease modeling. We present a human iPSC-derived airway epithelial platform, composed of the major airway epithelial cell types, that is permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Subsets of iPSC-airway cells express the SARS-CoV-2 entry factors ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Multiciliated cells are the primary initial target of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Upon infection with SARS-CoV-2, iPSC-airway cells generate robust interferon and inflammatory responses and treatment with remdesivir or camostat methylate causes a decrease in viral propagation and entry, respectively. In conclusion, iPSC-derived airway cells provide a physiologically relevant in vitro model system to interrogate the pathogenesis of, and develop treatment strategies for, COVID-19 pneumonia.

Giuseppe Lippi ◽  
Emmanuel J. Favaloro

AbstractThe clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is often complicated by the onset of venous thrombosis and thromboembolism (VTE), encompassing also pulmonary thrombosis. Recent statistics attests that the cumulative frequency of VTE can be as high as 30% in COVID-19 hospitalized patients, increasing to nearly 40 to 70% (depending on systematic screening) in those with severe illness, mechanical ventilation, or intensive care unit admission. The risk of venous thrombosis seems mostly limited to the active phase of disease, and is directly associated with some genetic (i.e., inherited prothrombotic predisposition) and demographical factors (male sex, overweight/obesity), disease severity (risk increasing progressively from hospitalization to development of severe illness, being the highest in patients needing mechanical ventilation and/or intensive care), presence and extent of pulmonary disease, coexistence of multiple risk factors (immobilization, mechanical ventilation, co- or superinfections), along with increased values of inflammatory and thrombotic biomarkers. At least three different phenotypes of pulmonary thrombosis may develop in COVID-19 patients, one caused by typical embolization from peripheral venous thrombosis (e.g., deep vein thrombosis), a second type triggered by local inflammation of nearby pulmonary tissue, and a third one mostly attributable to the prothrombotic state consequent to the pronounced systemic inflammatory response (i.e., the so-called cytokine storm) that is frequently observed in COVID-19. Although the pathogenesis of these three conditions has different features, their discrimination is essential for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The prognosis of COVID-19 patients who develop pulmonary thrombosis is also considerably worse than those who do not, thus probably needing frequent monitoring and more aggressive therapeutic management.

2022 ◽  

Pietro Antonio Locatelli (b. Bergamo, 1695–d. Amsterdam, 1764) was an Italian composer and a virtuoso violinist. He started his career in his hometown, among the violinists of the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore in Bergamo. In 1711 he moved to Rome, probably to study with Arcangelo Corelli, the maximum musical authority of the time. The severe illness and the death (1713) of the great master frustrated the young violinist’s plans, however. Probably Locatelli had to fall back on Giuseppe Valentini, a virtuoso violinist trained at Corelli’s school. In the meantime, Locatelli worked in many places and institutions. His first employment was with Michelangelo X Caetani, duke of Cisterna and Sermoneta and prince of Caserta; he then performed with the musical chapel of Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni and Monsignor Camillo Cybo, the latter the dedicatee of Locatelli’s Op. 1. From 1716 to 1722 he was a member of the Congregatione generale dei musici di Santa Cecilia. Locatelli was in Rome until the spring of 1723. He then started a tour that led him to the main European musical centers. In 1723 Locatelli was in Venice, where made the acquaintance of the patrician Girolamo Michiel Lini, Op. 3’s dedicatee. In 1725 he was in Mantua, where was appointed “virtuoso di camera” by Philipp von Hessen-Darmstadt. In 1727 Locatelli left Italy, never to return. He had short stays in Munich (1727), Berlin, Frankfurt, and Kassel (1728). In 1729 he moved to Amsterdam, where remained until his death. There he started to print his nine Opus numbers composed during the years of pilgrimage. Locatelli wrote only instrumental music, in the genres of concerto grosso, violin concerto, violin sonata, and trio sonata. Le Cène, Van der Hoeven, and Covens were the publishers of his orchestral works, while his chamber works were instead published at his own expense. In addition, he gave weekly private concerts, taught a few rich patricians of the city, and traded in prints, books, and musical items. Studies on Locatelli’s time, life, and works are covered in several book-length studies, a complete edition, and numerous articles.

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