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Published By Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)

1743-422x, 1743-422x

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Joachim R. de Miranda ◽  
Laura E. Brettell ◽  
Nor Chejanovsky ◽  
Anna K. Childers ◽  
Anne Dalmon ◽  
...  

AbstractIn 1977, a sample of diseased adult honeybees (Apis mellifera) from Egypt was found to contain large amounts of a previously unknown virus, Egypt bee virus, which was subsequently shown to be serologically related to deformed wing virus (DWV). By sequencing the original isolate, we demonstrate that Egypt bee virus is in fact a fourth unique, major variant of DWV (DWV-D): more closely related to DWV-C than to either DWV-A or DWV-B. DWV-A and DWV-B are the most common DWV variants worldwide due to their close relationship and transmission by Varroa destructor. However, we could not find any trace of DWV-D in several hundred RNA sequencing libraries from a worldwide selection of honeybee, varroa and bumblebee samples. This means that DWV-D has either become extinct, been replaced by other DWV variants better adapted to varroa-mediated transmission, or persists only in a narrow geographic or host range, isolated from common bee and beekeeping trade routes.


2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yafen Liu ◽  
Yue Wang ◽  
Huan Mai ◽  
YuanYuan Chen ◽  
Baiyi Liu ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Compared with immunocompetent patients, immunosuppressed patients have higher morbidity and mortality, a longer duration of viral shedding, more frequent complications, and more antiviral resistance during influenza infections. However, few data on this population in China have been reported. We analysed the clinical characteristics, effects of antiviral therapy, and risk factors for admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and death in this population after influenza infections and explored the influenza vaccination situation for this population. Methods We analysed 111 immunosuppressed inpatients who were infected with influenza virus during the 2015–2020 influenza seasons. Medical data were collected through the electronic medical record system and analysed. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistics analysis were used to identify risk factors. Results The most common cause of immunosuppression was malignancies being treated with chemotherapy (64.0%, 71/111), followed by haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) (23.4%, 26/111). The most common presenting symptoms were fever and cough. Dyspnoea, gastrointestinal symptoms and altered mental status were more common in HSCT patients than in patients with immunosuppression due to other causes. Approximately 14.4% (16/111) of patients were admitted to the ICU, and 9.9% (11/111) of patients died. Combined and double doses of neuraminidase inhibitors did not significantly reduce the risk of admission to the ICU or death. Risk factors for admission to the ICU were dyspnoea, coinfection with other pathogens and no antiviral treatment within 48 h. The presence of dyspnoea and altered mental status were independently associated with death. Only 2.7% (3/111) of patients less than 12 months old had received a seasonal influenza vaccine. Conclusion Fever and other classic symptoms of influenza may be absent in immunosuppressed recipients, especially in HSCT patients. Conducting influenza virus detection at the first presentation seems to be a good choice for early diagnosis. Clinicians should pay extra attention to immunosuppressed patients with dyspnoea, altered mental status, coinfection with other pathogens and no antiviral treatment within 48 h because these patients have a high risk of severe illness. Inactivated influenza vaccines are recommended for immunosuppressed patients.


2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Awoke Derbie ◽  
Daniel Mekonnen ◽  
Endalkachew Nibret ◽  
Melanie Maier ◽  
Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Cervical cancer is caused by infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs). It is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in Ethiopia and globally. To develop efficient vaccination and HPV-based cervical cancer screening approaches, data on genotype distribution of HPVs is crucial. Hence, the study was aimed to review HPV genotype distribution in Ethiopia. Methods Research articles were systematically searched using comprehensive search strings from PubMed/Medline and SCOPUS. Besides, Google Scholar was searched manually for grey literature. The last search was conducted on 18 August 2021. The first two authors independently appraised the studies for scientific quality and extracted the data using Excel sheet. The pooled HPV genotype distribution was presented with descriptive statistics. Results We have included ten studies that were reported from different parts of the country during 2005 and 2019. These studies included 3633 women presented with different kinds of cervical abnormalities, from whom 29 different HPV genotypes with a sum of 1926 sequences were reported. The proportion of high-risk, possible/probable high-risk and low-risk HPVs were at 1493 (77.5%), 182 (9.4%) and 195 (10.1%), respectively. Of the reported genotypes, the top five were HPV 16 (37.3%; 95% CI 35.2.1–39.5%), HPV 52 (6.8%; 95% CI 5.8–8.0%), HPV 35 (4.8%; 95% CI 3.9–5.8%), HPV 18 (4.4%; 95% CI 3.5–5.3%) and HPV 56 (3.9%: 95% CI 3.1–4.9%). Some of other HR-HPV groups include HPV 31 (3.8%), HPV 45 (3.5%), HPV 58 (3.1%), HPV 59(2.3%), and HPV 68 (2.3%). Among the high-risk types, the combined prevalence of HPV 16/18 was at 53.7% (95% CI 51.2–56.3%). HPV 11 (2.7%: 95% CI 2.1–3.5%), HPV 42 (2.1%: 95% CI 1.5–2.8%) and HPV 6 (2.1%: 95% CI 1.4–2.7%) were the most common low-risk HPV types. Conclusions We noted that the proportion of HR-HPV types was higher and HPV 16 in particular, but also HPV 52, HPV 35 and HPV 18, warrant special attention in Ethiopian’s vaccination and HPV based cervical screening program. Additional data from other parts of the country where there is no previous HPV genotype report are needed to better map the national HPV genotypes distribution of Ethiopia.


2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ádám Fülöp ◽  
Gábor Torma ◽  
Norbert Moldován ◽  
Kálmán Szenthe ◽  
Ferenc Bánáti ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is an important human pathogenic gammaherpesvirus with carcinogenic potential. The EBV transcriptome has previously been analyzed using both Illumina-based short read-sequencing and Pacific Biosciences RS II-based long-read sequencing technologies. Since the various sequencing methods have distinct strengths and limitations, the use of multiplatform approaches have proven to be valuable. The aim of this study is to provide a more complete picture on the transcriptomic architecture of EBV. Methods In this work, we apply the Oxford Nanopore Technologies MinION (long-read sequencing) platform for the generation of novel transcriptomic data, and integrate these with other’s data generated by another LRS approach, Pacific BioSciences RSII sequencing and Illumina CAGE-Seq and Poly(A)-Seq approaches. Both amplified and non-amplified cDNA sequencings were applied for the generation of sequencing reads, including both oligo-d(T) and random oligonucleotide-primed reverse transcription. EBV transcripts are identified and annotated using the LoRTIA software suite developed in our laboratory. Results This study detected novel genes embedded into longer host genes containing 5′-truncated in-frame open reading frames, which potentially encode N-terminally truncated proteins. We also detected a number of novel non-coding RNAs and transcript length isoforms encoded by the same genes but differing in their start and/or end sites. This study also reports the discovery of novel splice isoforms, many of which may represent altered coding potential, and of novel replication-origin-associated transcripts. Additionally, novel mono- and multigenic transcripts were identified. An intricate meshwork of transcriptional overlaps was revealed. Conclusions An integrative approach applying multi-technique sequencing technologies is suitable for reliable identification of complex transcriptomes because each techniques has different advantages and limitations, and the they can be used for the validation of the results obtained by a particular approach.


2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Gabriella Rozera ◽  
Ubaldo Visco-Comandini ◽  
Emanuela Giombini ◽  
Francesco Santini ◽  
Federica Forbici ◽  
...  

Abstract Introduction Transplantation among HIV positive patients may be a valuable therapeutic intervention. This study involves an HIV D+/R+ kidney–liver transplantation, where PBMC-associated HIV quasispecies were analyzed in donor and transplant recipients (TR) prior to transplantation and thereafter, together with standard viral monitoring. Methods The donor was a 54 year of age HIV infected woman: kidney and liver recipients were two HIV infected men, aged 49 and 61. HIV quasispecies in PBMC was analyzed by ultra-deep sequencing of V3 env region. During TR follow-up, plasma HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA in PBMC, analysis of proviral integration sites and drug-resistance genotyping were performed. Other virological and immunological monitoring included CMV and EBV DNA quantification in blood and CD4 T cell counts. Results Donor and TR were all ART-HIV suppressed at transplantation. Thereafter, TR maintained a nearly suppressed HIV-1 viremia, but HIV-1 RNA blips and the increase of proviral integration sites in PBMC attested some residual HIV replication. A transient peak in HIV-1 DNA occurred in the liver recipient. No major changes of drug-resistance genotype were detected after transplantation. CMV and EBV transient reactivations were observed only in the kidney recipient, but did not require specific treatment. CD4 counts remained stable. No intermixed quasispecies between donor and TR was observed at transplantation or thereafter. Despite signs of viral evolution in TR, HIV genetic heterogeneity did not increase over the course of the months of follow up. Conclusions No evidence of HIV superinfection was observed in the donor nor in the recipients. The immunosuppressive treatment administrated to TR did not result in clinical relevant viral reactivations.


2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yeter Eylul Bayram ◽  
Dilek Yildiz-Sevgi ◽  
Ayse Yavuz ◽  
Merve Cancetin ◽  
Mehmet Yavuz Gurler

Abstract Background Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS), which develops after a past covid-19 infection. MIS can be described in different tissue inflammation, including the heart, lung, kidney, brain, skin, eye, and or gastrointestinal organs at the presence of COVID-19. Initially, MIS was described in Europe in children infected with SARS-CoV-2, then it was recently seen in the USA in 2020. MIS is a rare but serious disease condition associated with COVID-19 that can affect children (MIS-C) and adults (MIS-A). Case presentation A 44-year-old male who showed MIS-A in 59-day after his first covid-19 contact history. The patient presented to our emergency department with complaints of high fever, nausea, weakness, redness of the eyes, headache, and joint pain. On the second day of his hospitalization, a maculopapular skin lesion was seen in most of the skin. His fever could not be controlled even given paracetamol and broad effective antibiotics. His clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings showed that he had MIS-A. The patient was given intravenous pulse methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). These treatments, then, resulted in improvement of his clinical conditions, including fever and skin lesions, on the second day of the treatment. The patient was discharged in 14 days after the treatment. Conclusion This report indicated that diagnosis and treatment of MIS-A could result in reducing patient morbidity and mortality.


2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Lien Gysens ◽  
Bert Vanmechelen ◽  
Maarten Haspeslagh ◽  
Piet Maes ◽  
Ann Martens

Abstract Background Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) types 1 and 2 play a central role in the etiology of the most common neoplasm in horses, the equine sarcoid. The unknown mechanism behind the unique variety in clinical presentation on the one hand and the host dependent clinical outcome of BPV-1 infection on the other hand indicate the involvement of additional factors. Earlier studies have reported the potential functional significance of intratypic sequence variants, along with the existence of sarcoid-sourced BPV variants. Therefore, intratypic sequence variation seems to be an important emerging viral factor. This study aimed to give a broad insight in sarcoid-sourced BPV variation and explore its potential association with disease presentation. Methods In order to do this, a nanopore sequencing approach was successfully optimized for screening a wide spectrum of clinical samples. Specimens of each tumour were initially screened for BPV-1/-2 by quantitative real-time PCR. A custom-designed primer set was used on BPV-positive samples to amplify the complete viral genome in two multiplex PCR reactions, resulting in a set of overlapping amplicons. For phylogenetic analysis, separate alignments were made of all available complete genome sequences for BPV-1/-2. The resulting alignments were used to infer Bayesian phylogenetic trees. Results We found substantial genetic variation among sarcoid-derived BPV-1, although this variation could not be linked to disease severity. Several of the BPV-1 genomes had multiple major deletions. Remarkably, the majority of them cluster within the region coding for late viral genes. Together with the extensiveness (up to 603 nucleotides) of the described deletions, this suggests an altered function of L1/L2 in disease pathogenesis. Conclusions By generating a significant amount of complete-length BPV genomes, we succeeded to introduce next-generation sequencing into veterinary research focusing on the equine sarcoid, thus facilitating the first report of both nanopore-based sequencing of complete sarcoid-sourced BPV-1/-2 and the simultaneous nanopore sequencing of multiple complete genomes originating from a single clinical sample.


2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Munam Raza Jafri ◽  
Anna Zaheer ◽  
Sahar Fatima ◽  
Taiba Saleem ◽  
Atif Sohail

Abstract Background Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is a communicable disease caused by a virus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Pandemics are associated with the high level of mental stress. In many countries, general people reported the high level of depression, anxiety, psychological distress, post-traumatic stress disorder during recent a pandemic. This study aims to investigate the mental health status of people who survived through this alarming situation of COVID-19. Methods In this study, seventy individuals (either gender) between the age of 18–60 years, who contracted COVID-19 previously and then recovered as indicated by negative PCR results, were included. Data was collected by using three tools: impact of event scale (IES-R), patient health questionnaire-9(PHQ-9) and corona anxiety scale (CAS). People with other systemic/mental disorders, ongoing malignancies, upper/lower motor disorders and inability to give consent were excluded from the study. Results Mean age of participants was 26.29 + 11.79. All the 70 responders suffered from COVID-19. Among these 23 (32.9%) were asymptomatic and 47(67.1%) had common symptoms related to COVID-19 53 (75.7%) responders also had symptoms post-recovery. Most of the people who suffered COVID-19 had mild depression. Twenty-nine participants (41.4%) reported the highest impact of this traumatic event on their mental health. After suffering from COVID-19, 74.3% reported no anxiety as measured through corona anxiety scale (CAS). Conclusion High level of post-traumatic stress was seen among participants who recovered from COVID-19, especially those patients who were symptomatic. Mild depression and anxiety were also noted among them.


2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Xin Zhang ◽  
Yiyun Xu ◽  
Yi Li ◽  
Huangbo Yuan ◽  
Zhenqiu Liu ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) prevalence and risk factors exhibit considerable variations across populations in different geographic regions. Determinants and the transmission routes of KSHV infection are uncertain. We seek to identify the possible risk factors and the transmission routes of KSHV infection in non-endemic areas. Methods We collected annual cases and seroprevalence of KSHV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) from the NHANES III sampled individuals from the US general population (1988–1994). We included 13,179 and 10,720 individuals with available remaining serum samples of KSHV and HSV-2. Logistic regression was employed to explore potential risk factors for the seropositivity. Results The seroprevalence was 2.05% for KSHV infection and 31.03% for HSV2 infection among this population. All risk factors of sexual behaviors included were strongly associated with HSV-2 positive, however, only MSM had an approximately fivefold increased risk of KSHV infection (OR = 4.71; 95%CI 1.61 11.30). Mexican Americans (2.51%) and older (chi-squaretrend =  − 6.71, P < 0.001) individuals had a higher risk of KSHV infection. After adjustment, individuals with higher level of education and economic status had lower KSHV infection. Conclusions In non-endemic areas, KSHV transmission may be related to sexual activity in men, especially in male homosexuals. Higher education level and economic status are protective factors for KSHV infection.


2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Xiangpeng Wang ◽  
Yuan Song ◽  
Xiaofei Wei ◽  
Guanyu Wang ◽  
Ruili Sun ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection can cause cervical and other cancers, including vulva, vagina, penis, anus, or oropharynx. However, in China's northern Henan Province, data on the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV among women attending gynecology clinics is limited. This study aimed to investigate the current prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV among women attending gynecology clinics in northern Henan Province. Methods This study included 15,616 women aged 16–81 years old who visited the Xinxiang central hospital's gynecology department between January 2018 and December 2019. HPV DNA was detected by a conventional PCR method followed by HPV type-specific hybridization, which was designed to detect 17 high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) genotypes and 20 low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) genotypes. HPV prevalence and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using SPSS 18.0. Results The overall HPV prevalence was 19.7% among women in northern Henan Province. Single, double, and multiple HPV infections accounted for 13.7%, 4.3%, and 1.8% of the total cases. Most infections were caused by HR-HPV (71.8%), and single genotype HPV infection (13.7%) was the most common pattern. The most common HR-HPV genotype was HPV16 (4.3%), followed by HPV52 (3.5%) and HPV58 (2.0%). The most common LR-HPV genotype was HPV6 (1.4%), followed by HPV61 (1.1%) and HPV81 (1.1%). Conclusions HPV infection is high among women attending gynecology clinics in northern Henan Province. The highest prevalence was found in women less than 20 years old. In northern Henan Province, the 9-valent HPV vaccine is strongly recommended for regular immunization.


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