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2021 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Keren Dopelt ◽  
Ori Loren ◽  
Gal Gapich ◽  
Nadav Davidovitch

Objectives: To examine the level of knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of students on topics related to climate change and the relationship between those variables.Methods: A cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire, including 704 students. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson correlations, t-tests, one-way ANOVA, and regression models.Results: Only 42% of participants understood what climate change meant, and 14% indicated their indifference toward it. Students had a moderate level of knowledge about the impact of climate change, and their attitudes were moderately positive, yet they demonstrated poor environmental behavior. We found positive relationships between variables, with attitudes mediating the relationship between knowledge and behavior. Women demonstrated more pro-environmental behavior than men.Conclusions: Our results highlight the importance of raising awareness of climate change's effects and its mitigation. Pro-environmental behavior requires long-term thinking and priorities for the future rather than benefits in the present. Future environmental education campaigns should emphasize individual contributions to environmental impacts in the context of climate change, as well as environmentally relevant consumption habits. We suggest including an introductory reflective and emancipatory course in environmental studies in all departments, emphasizing public health aspects.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Teodora Georgescu ◽  
Judith M. Swart ◽  
David R. Grattan ◽  
Rosemary S. E. Brown

Transition into motherhood involves profound physiological and behavioral adaptations that ensure the healthy development of offspring while maintaining maternal health. Dynamic fluctuations in key hormones during pregnancy and lactation induce these maternal adaptations by acting on neural circuits in the brain. Amongst these hormonal changes, lactogenic hormones (e.g., prolactin and its pregnancy-specific homolog, placental lactogen) are important regulators of these processes, and their receptors are located in key brain regions controlling emotional behaviors and maternal responses. With pregnancy and lactation also being associated with a marked elevation in the risk of developing mood disorders, it is important to understand how hormones are normally regulating mood and behavior during this time. It seems likely that pathological changes in mood could result from aberrant expression of these hormone-induced behavioral responses. Maternal mental health problems during pregnancy and the postpartum period represent a major barrier in developing healthy mother-infant interactions which are crucial for the child's development. In this review, we will examine the role lactogenic hormones play in driving a range of specific maternal behaviors, including motivation, protectiveness, and mother-pup interactions. Understanding how these hormones collectively act in a mother's brain to promote nurturing behaviors toward offspring will ultimately assist in treatment development and contribute to safeguarding a successful pregnancy.

2021 ◽  
pp. 000842982110550
Joel Thiessen ◽  
Kennedy Quantz ◽  
Arch Chee Keen Wong ◽  
Keith Walker ◽  
Bill McAlpine

With the recent surge of “religious nones” in many Western nations, there is a growing interest among some church attenders to effectively “reach” this demographic. In this article, we build on theories of strictness and social embeddedness to tackle three questions regarding evangelistic belief and behavior in Canadian Catholic, mainline Protestant, and conservative Protestant congregations. First, in what ways are evangelistic beliefs and behaviors similar or dissimilar across theological traditions, notably when comparing stricter and less strict contexts? Second, how are evangelistic behaviors similar or dissimilar based on a person’s frequency of church attendance? Third, what challenges do people confront in their evangelistic efforts? Drawing on survey data with over 9100 Catholic, mainline, and conservative Protestant respondents in over 250 Canadian congregations, this study compares responses across theological sectors, reported levels of importance that church members attach to evangelism, as well as church attendance frequency. Data reveal that those in religious traditions with stricter “insider–outsider” boundaries and who were more socially embedded in their religious groups (i.e., conservative Protestant traditions) were the most likely to embrace evangelistic attitudes and behaviors, in contrast to those in religious groups with less strict boundaries or social embeddedness in their religious group (i.e., United Church of Canada). However, those with the strongest “us–them” boundaries also found those boundaries particularly prohibitive to their evangelistic efforts reflected, in part, in a widespread leaning toward passive versus assertive forms of evangelism.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 17-36
Zuraida Ahmad ◽  
Noraini Mohamed Noor ◽  
Siti Fauziah Toha ◽  
Nurul Fadzlin Hasbullah ◽  
Ali Sophian ◽  

As ethical behavior is a part of engineers' professional identity and practice, developing ethical behavior skills in future engineers is a vital component of the engineering curriculum. There are already established instructional methods to teach engineering ethics (EE), however, it is concentrated on ethical awareness, and little attention has been given to how this will affect the ethical behavior. Even though students are capable of exercising ethical judgment, it does not mean that they are ethically literate or likely to act ethically. The assessment of engineering ethics cannot be conducted based on ethical judgment, because the ethical awareness of some engineers has not translated into ethical behavior. An alternative instructional method for measuring the ethical behavior is required to see how the ethical awareness given in the classroom setting is translated to the actual ethical behavior. Therefore, the focus of this paper is to propose an instructional method that correlates with both ethical awareness and ethical behavior, through aspirational ethics which require the students to contribute to the society. This method integrates the theory of morals and values, ethical and unethical conduct, code of practices of an engineer, ethics with the environment, and the responsibility of the engineer for the safety of everybody. Students’ ethical behavior in the society will be demonstrated through the University Social Responsibility (USR) projects. From these projects, the students’ ethical behavior is assessed by their peers, beneficiaries that they are serving, as well as by the educators, regarding their ethical conduct. This will be the tools to observe the degree of correlations between the ethical awareness instilled and behavior manifested. Applying these instructional methods will allow educators to build confidence and trust in their students' ability to build a professional identity and be prepared for the engineering profession and practice.

Information ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 498
Carolina Herrando ◽  
Julio Jiménez-Martínez ◽  
María José Martín-De Hoyos

Based on expectation disconfirmation theory, this study analyzes how attitudes (satisfaction and loyalty) influence interaction intention (sWOM) and, consequently, active and passive sWOM behavior. It does so by assessing the mediating role of social presence on sWOM intention and behavior. The empirical results provide several contributions. First, knowing how to increase active sWOM contributes to bridging the gap regarding how to enhance interactions between users. Second, fostering active sWOM on social commerce websites will provide companies with more positive user-generated content, since this active sWOM comes from satisfied and loyal users, and it is assumed that they will rate the product positively and report a good experience. Third, companies can benefit more from users if users interact with other users by sharing their experiences. This study sheds light on how social presence can mediate the relationship between intention and behavior, particularly when it comes to increasing active participation and brand promotion.

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