ACM Transactions on Asian and Low-Resource Language Information Processing
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Published By Association For Computing Machinery

2375-4699

Author(s):  
Haitong Yang ◽  
Guangyou Zhou ◽  
Tingting He

This article considers the task of text style transfer: transforming a specific style of sentence into another while preserving its style-independent content. A dominate approach to text style transfer is to learn a good content factor of text, define a fixed vector for every style and recombine them to generate text in the required style. In fact, there are a large number of different words to convey the same style from different aspects. Thus, using a fixed vector to represent one style is very inefficient, which causes the weak representation power of the style vector and limits text diversity of the same style. To address this problem, we propose a novel neural generative model called Adversarial Separation Network (ASN), which can learn the content and style vector jointly and the learnt vectors have strong representation power and good interpretabilities. In our method, adversarial learning is implemented to enhance our model’s capability of disentangling the two factors. To evaluate our method, we conduct experiments on two benchmark datasets. Experimental results show our method can perform style transfer better than strong comparison systems. We also demonstrate the strong interpretability of the learnt latent vectors.


Author(s):  
Guirong Bai ◽  
Shizhu He ◽  
Kang Liu ◽  
Jun Zhao

Active learning is an effective method to substantially alleviate the problem of expensive annotation cost for data-driven models. Recently, pre-trained language models have been demonstrated to be powerful for learning language representations. In this article, we demonstrate that the pre-trained language model can also utilize its learned textual characteristics to enrich criteria of active learning. Specifically, we provide extra textual criteria with the pre-trained language model to measure instances, including noise, coverage, and diversity. With these extra textual criteria, we can select more efficient instances for annotation and obtain better results. We conduct experiments on both English and Chinese sentence matching datasets. The experimental results show that the proposed active learning approach can be enhanced by the pre-trained language model and obtain better performance.


Author(s):  
Shu Jiang ◽  
Zuchao Li ◽  
Hai Zhao ◽  
Bao-Liang Lu ◽  
Rui Wang

In recent years, the research on dependency parsing focuses on improving the accuracy of the domain-specific (in-domain) test datasets and has made remarkable progress. However, there are innumerable scenarios in the real world that are not covered by the dataset, namely, the out-of-domain dataset. As a result, parsers that perform well on the in-domain data usually suffer from significant performance degradation on the out-of-domain data. Therefore, to adapt the existing in-domain parsers with high performance to a new domain scenario, cross-domain transfer learning methods are essential to solve the domain problem in parsing. This paper examines two scenarios for cross-domain transfer learning: semi-supervised and unsupervised cross-domain transfer learning. Specifically, we adopt a pre-trained language model BERT for training on the source domain (in-domain) data at the subword level and introduce self-training methods varied from tri-training for these two scenarios. The evaluation results on the NLPCC-2019 shared task and universal dependency parsing task indicate the effectiveness of the adopted approaches on cross-domain transfer learning and show the potential of self-learning to cross-lingual transfer learning.


Author(s):  
Sujata Rani ◽  
Parteek Kumar

In this paper, an aspect-based Sentiment Analysis (SA) system for Hindi is presented. The proposed system assigns a separate sentiment towards the different aspects of a sentence as well as it evaluates the overall sentiment expressed in a sentence. In this work, Hindi Dependency Parser (HDP) is used to determine the association between an aspect word and a sentiment word (using Hindi SentiWordNet) and works on the idea that closely connected words come together to express a sentiment about a certain aspect. By generating a dependency graph, the system assigns the sentiment to an aspect having a minimum distance between them and computes the overall polarity of the sentence. The system achieves an accuracy of 83.2% on a corpus of movie reviews and its results are compared with baselines as well as existing works on SA. From the results, it has been observed that the proposed system has the potential to be used in emerging applications like SA of product reviews, social media analysis, etc.


Author(s):  
Mir Ragib Ishraq ◽  
Nitesh Khadka ◽  
Asif Mohammed Samir ◽  
M. Shahidur Rahman

Three different Indic/Indo-Aryan languages - Bengali, Hindi and Nepali have been explored here in character level to find out similarities and dissimilarities. Having shared the same root, the Sanskrit, Indic languages bear common characteristics. That is why computer and language scientists can take the opportunity to develop common Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques or algorithms. Bearing the concept in mind, we compare and analyze these three languages character by character. As an application of the hypothesis, we also developed a uniform sorting algorithm in two steps, first for the Bengali and Nepali languages only and then extended it for Hindi in the second step. Our thorough investigation with more than 30,000 words from each language suggests that, the algorithm maintains total accuracy as set by the local language authorities of the respective languages and good efficiency.


Author(s):  
Mohammad Sadegh Sheikhaei ◽  
Hasan Zafari ◽  
Yuan Tian

In this article, we propose a new encoding scheme for named entity recognition (NER) called Joined Type-Length encoding (JoinedTL). Unlike most existing named entity encoding schemes, which focus on flat entities, JoinedTL can label nested named entities in a single sequence. JoinedTL uses a packed encoding to represent both type and span of a named entity, which not only results in less tagged tokens compared to existing encoding schemes, but also enables it to support nested NER. We evaluate the effectiveness of JoinedTL for nested NER on three nested NER datasets: GENIA in English, GermEval in German, and PerNest, our newly created nested NER dataset in Persian. We apply CharLSTM+WordLSTM+CRF, a three-layer sequence tagging model on three datasets encoded using JoinedTL and two existing nested NE encoding schemes, i.e., JoinedBIO and JoinedBILOU. Our experiment results show that CharLSTM+WordLSTM+CRF trained with JoinedTL encoded datasets can achieve competitive F1 scores as the ones trained with datasets encoded by two other encodings, but with 27%–48% less tagged tokens. To leverage the power of three different encodings, i.e., JoinedTL, JoinedBIO, and JoinedBILOU, we propose an encoding-based ensemble method for nested NER. Evaluation results show that the ensemble method achieves higher F1 scores on all datasets than the three models each trained using one of the three encodings. By using nested NE encodings including JoinedTL with CharLSTM+WordLSTM+CRF, we establish new state-of-the-art performance with an F1 score of 83.7 on PerNest, 74.9 on GENIA, and 70.5 on GermEval, surpassing two recent neural models specially designed for nested NER.


Author(s):  
Xianwen Liao ◽  
Yongzhong Huang ◽  
Peng Yang ◽  
Lei Chen

By defining the computable word segmentation unit and studying its probability characteristics, we establish an unsupervised statistical language model (SLM) for a new pre-trained sequence labeling framework in this article. The proposed SLM is an optimization model, and its objective is to maximize the total binding force of all candidate word segmentation units in sentences under the condition of no annotated datasets and vocabularies. To solve SLM, we design a recursive divide-and-conquer dynamic programming algorithm. By integrating SLM with the popular sequence labeling models, Vietnamese word segmentation, part-of-speech tagging and named entity recognition experiments are performed. The experimental results show that our SLM can effectively promote the performance of sequence labeling tasks. Just using less than 10% of training data and without using a dictionary, the performance of our sequence labeling framework is better than the state-of-the-art Vietnamese word segmentation toolkit VnCoreNLP on the cross-dataset test. SLM has no hyper-parameter to be tuned, and it is completely unsupervised and applicable to any other analytic language. Thus, it has good domain adaptability.


Author(s):  
A. Pramod Reddy ◽  
Vijayarajan V.

Automatic emotion recognition from Speech (AERS) systems based on acoustical analysis reveal that some emotional classes persist with ambiguity. This study employed an alternative method aimed at providing deep understanding into the amplitude–frequency, impacts of various emotions in order to aid in the advancement of near term, more effectively in classifying AER approaches. The study was undertaken by converting narrow 20 ms frames of speech into RGB or grey-scale spectrogram images. The features have been used to fine-tune a feature selection system that had previously been trained to recognise emotions. Two different Linear and Mel spectral scales are used to demonstrate a spectrogram. An inductive approach for in sighting the amplitude and frequency features of various emotional classes. We propose a two-channel profound combination of deep fusion network model for the efficient categorization of images. Linear and Mel- spectrogram is acquired from Speech-signal, which is prepared in the recurrence area to input Deep Neural Network. The proposed model Alex-Net with five convolutional layers and two fully connected layers acquire most vital features form spectrogram images plotted on the amplitude-frequency scale. The state-of-the-art is compared with benchmark dataset (EMO-DB). RGB and saliency images are fed to pre-trained Alex-Net tested both EMO-DB and Telugu dataset with an accuracy of 72.18% and fused image features less computations reaching to an accuracy 75.12%. The proposed model show that Transfer learning predict efficiently than Fine-tune network. When tested on Emo-DB dataset, the propȯsed system adequately learns discriminant features from speech spectrȯgrams and outperforms many stȧte-of-the-art techniques.


Author(s):  
Jian Sun ◽  
Yu Zhou ◽  
Chengqing Zong

The relation learning between two entities is an essential task in knowledge graph (KG) completion that has received much attention recently. Previous work almost exclusively focused on relations widely seen in the original KGs, which means that enough training data are available for modeling. However, long-tail relations that only show in a few triples are actually much more common in practical KGs. Without sufficiently large training data, the performance of existing models on predicting long-tail relations drops impressively. This work aims to predict the relation under a challenging setting where only one instance is available for training. We propose a path-based one-shot relation prediction framework, which can extract neighborhood information of an entity based on the relation query attention mechanism to learn transferable knowledge among the same relation. Simultaneously, to reduce the impact of long-tail entities on relation prediction, we selectively fuse path information between entity pairs as auxiliary information of relation features. Experiments in three one-shot relation learning datasets show that our proposed framework substantially outperforms existing models on one-shot link prediction and relation prediction.


Author(s):  
Shilpa Pandey ◽  
Gaurav Harit

In this article, we address the problem of localizing text and symbolic annotations on the scanned image of a printed document. Previous approaches have considered the task of annotation extraction as binary classification into printed and handwritten text. In this work, we further subcategorize the annotations as underlines, encirclements, inline text, and marginal text. We have collected a new dataset of 300 documents constituting all classes of annotations marked around or in-between printed text. Using the dataset as a benchmark, we report the results of two saliency formulations—CRF Saliency and Discriminant Saliency, for predicting salient patches, which can correspond to different types of annotations. We also compare our work with recent semantic segmentation techniques using deep models. Our analysis shows that Discriminant Saliency can be considered as the preferred approach for fast localization of patches containing different types of annotations. The saliency models were learned on a small dataset, but still, give comparable performance to the deep networks for pixel-level semantic segmentation. We show that saliency-based methods give better outcomes with limited annotated data compared to more sophisticated segmentation techniques that require a large training set to learn the model.


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