low dimensional
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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-23
Christoffer Löffler ◽  
Luca Reeb ◽  
Daniel Dzibela ◽  
Robert Marzilger ◽  
Nicolas Witt ◽  

This work proposes metric learning for fast similarity-based scene retrieval of unstructured ensembles of trajectory data from large databases. We present a novel representation learning approach using Siamese Metric Learning that approximates a distance preserving low-dimensional representation and that learns to estimate reasonable solutions to the assignment problem. To this end, we employ a Temporal Convolutional Network architecture that we extend with a gating mechanism to enable learning from sparse data, leading to solutions to the assignment problem exhibiting varying degrees of sparsity. Our experimental results on professional soccer tracking data provides insights on learned features and embeddings, as well as on generalization, sensitivity, and network architectural considerations. Our low approximation errors for learned representations and the interactive performance with retrieval times several magnitudes smaller shows that we outperform previous state of the art.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-29
Meng Chen ◽  
Lei Zhu ◽  
Ronghui Xu ◽  
Yang Liu ◽  
Xiaohui Yu ◽  

Venue categories used in location-based social networks often exhibit a hierarchical structure, together with the category sequences derived from users’ check-ins. The two data modalities provide a wealth of information for us to capture the semantic relationships between those categories. To understand the venue semantics, existing methods usually embed venue categories into low-dimensional spaces by modeling the linear context (i.e., the positional neighbors of the given category) in check-in sequences. However, the hierarchical structure of venue categories, which inherently encodes the relationships between categories, is largely untapped. In this article, we propose a venue C ategory E mbedding M odel named Hier-CEM , which generates a latent representation for each venue category by embedding the Hier archical structure of categories and utilizing multiple types of context. Specifically, we investigate two kinds of hierarchical context based on any given venue category hierarchy and show how to model them together with the linear context collaboratively. We apply Hier-CEM to three tasks on two real check-in datasets collected from Foursquare. Experimental results show that Hier-CEM is better at capturing both semantic and sequential information inherent in venues than state-of-the-art embedding methods.

2022 ◽  
Vol 57 ◽  
pp. 101883
Xiaoxu Xuan ◽  
Mengjie Wang ◽  
Meng Zhang ◽  
Yusuf Valentino Kaneti ◽  
Xingtao Xu ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 41 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-15
Chuankun Zheng ◽  
Ruzhang Zheng ◽  
Rui Wang ◽  
Shuang Zhao ◽  
Hujun Bao

In this article, we introduce a compact representation for measured BRDFs by leveraging Neural Processes (NPs). Unlike prior methods that express those BRDFs as discrete high-dimensional matrices or tensors, our technique considers measured BRDFs as continuous functions and works in corresponding function spaces . Specifically, provided the evaluations of a set of BRDFs, such as ones in MERL and EPFL datasets, our method learns a low-dimensional latent space as well as a few neural networks to encode and decode these measured BRDFs or new BRDFs into and from this space in a non-linear fashion. Leveraging this latent space and the flexibility offered by the NPs formulation, our encoded BRDFs are highly compact and offer a level of accuracy better than prior methods. We demonstrate the practical usefulness of our approach via two important applications, BRDF compression and editing. Additionally, we design two alternative post-trained decoders to, respectively, achieve better compression ratio for individual BRDFs and enable importance sampling of BRDFs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-28
Surong Yan ◽  
Kwei-Jay Lin ◽  
Xiaolin Zheng ◽  
Haosen Wang

Explicit and implicit knowledge about users and items have been used to describe complex and heterogeneous side information for recommender systems (RSs). Many existing methods use knowledge graph embedding (KGE) to learn the representation of a user-item knowledge graph (KG) in low-dimensional space. In this article, we propose a lightweight end-to-end joint learning framework for fusing the tasks of KGE and RSs at the model level. Our method proposes a lightweight KG embedding method by using bidirectional bijection relation-type modeling to enable scalability for large graphs while using self-adaptive negative sampling to optimize negative sample generating. Our method further generates the integrated views for users and items based on relation-types to explicitly model users’ preferences and items’ features, respectively. Finally, we add virtual “recommendation” relations between the integrated views of users and items to model the preferences of users on items, seamlessly integrating RS with user-item KG over a unified graph. Experimental results on multiple datasets and benchmarks show that our method can achieve a better accuracy of recommendation compared with existing state-of-the-art methods. Complexity and runtime analysis suggests that our method can gain a lower time and space complexity than most of existing methods and improve scalability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-26
Omid Hajihassani ◽  
Omid Ardakanian ◽  
Hamzeh Khazaei

The abundance of data collected by sensors in Internet of Things devices and the success of deep neural networks in uncovering hidden patterns in time series data have led to mounting privacy concerns. This is because private and sensitive information can be potentially learned from sensor data by applications that have access to this data. In this article, we aim to examine the tradeoff between utility and privacy loss by learning low-dimensional representations that are useful for data obfuscation. We propose deterministic and probabilistic transformations in the latent space of a variational autoencoder to synthesize time series data such that intrusive inferences are prevented while desired inferences can still be made with sufficient accuracy. In the deterministic case, we use a linear transformation to move the representation of input data in the latent space such that the reconstructed data is likely to have the same public attribute but a different private attribute than the original input data. In the probabilistic case, we apply the linear transformation to the latent representation of input data with some probability. We compare our technique with autoencoder-based anonymization techniques and additionally show that it can anonymize data in real time on resource-constrained edge devices.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-54
Yu Zhou ◽  
Haixia Zheng ◽  
Xin Huang ◽  
Shufeng Hao ◽  
Dengao Li ◽  

Graph neural networks provide a powerful toolkit for embedding real-world graphs into low-dimensional spaces according to specific tasks. Up to now, there have been several surveys on this topic. However, they usually lay emphasis on different angles so that the readers cannot see a panorama of the graph neural networks. This survey aims to overcome this limitation and provide a systematic and comprehensive review on the graph neural networks. First of all, we provide a novel taxonomy for the graph neural networks, and then refer to up to 327 relevant literatures to show the panorama of the graph neural networks. All of them are classified into the corresponding categories. In order to drive the graph neural networks into a new stage, we summarize four future research directions so as to overcome the challenges faced. It is expected that more and more scholars can understand and exploit the graph neural networks and use them in their research community.

2022 ◽  
Vol 163 ◽  
pp. 106682
A.F. Betancur-Lopera ◽  
E.A. Huitrón-Segovia ◽  
J. Cabral Miramontes ◽  
M.A. Esneider Alcalá ◽  
J.A. Arizpe Zapata ◽  

eLife ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
David Dahmen ◽  
Moritz Layer ◽  
Lukas Deutz ◽  
Paulina Anna Dąbrowska ◽  
Nicole Voges ◽  

Modern electrophysiological recordings simultaneously capture single-unit spiking activities of hundreds of neurons spread across large cortical distances. Yet, this parallel activity is often confined to relatively low-dimensional manifolds. This implies strong coordination also among neurons that are most likely not even connected. Here, we combine in vivo recordings with network models and theory to characterize the nature of mesoscopic coordination patterns in macaque motor cortex and to expose their origin: We find that heterogeneity in local connectivity supports network states with complex long-range cooperation between neurons that arises from multi-synaptic, short-range connections. Our theory explains the experimentally observed spatial organization of covariances in resting state recordings as well as the behaviorally related modulation of covariance patterns during a reach-to-grasp task. The ubiquity of heterogeneity in local cortical circuits suggests that the brain uses the described mechanism to flexibly adapt neuronal coordination to momentary demands.

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