gnrh antagonist
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Pegah Shakeri ◽  
S. Mohsen Asghari ◽  
Esmaeel Panahi Kokhdan ◽  
Vaezeh Fathi Vavsari ◽  
Farhad Golmohammadi ◽  

Endocrinology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Rebecka Amodei ◽  
Sonnet S Jonker ◽  
William Whitler ◽  
Charles T Estill ◽  
Charles E Roselli

Abstract The specific role of GnRH on brain sexual differentiation remains unclear. To investigate whether gonadotropin and, in turn, testosterone (T) secretion is regulated by GnRH during the critical period for brain differentiation in sheep fetuses, we attempted to selectively suppress pituitary-testicular activation during midgestation with the long-acting GnRH antagonist degarelix. Fetuses received subcutaneous injections of the antagonist or vehicle on day 62 of gestation. After 2 to 3 weeks we examined consequences of the intervention on baseline and GnRH-stimulated plasma LH and T levels. In addition, we measured the effect of degarelix-treatment on mRNA expression for the pituitary gonadotropins and key gonadal steroidogenic enzymes. Baseline and GnRH-stimulated plasma LH levels were significantly suppressed in degarelix-treated male and female fetuses compared to control values. Similarly, T concentrations were suppressed in degarelix-treated males. The percentage of LHβ-immunoreactive cells colocalizing c-fos was significantly reduced by degarelix treatment indicating that pituitary sensitivity was inhibited. Degarelix treatment also led to the significant suppression of mRNA expression coding for the pituitary gonadotropin subunits and for the gonadal enzymes involved in androgen synthesis. These findings demonstrate that pharmacologic inhibition of GnRH early in gestation results in suppression of LH secretion and deficits in the plasma T levels of male lamb fetuses. We conclude that GnRH signaling plays a pivotal role for regulating T exposure during the critical period of sheep gestation when the brain is masculinized. Thus, disturbance to gonadotropin secretion during this phase of gestation could have long-term consequence on adult sexual behaviors and fertility.

Abstract The aim of this study was to describe the histological effects of two high postnatal doses of the potent third-generation GnRH antagonist, acyline in the domestic cat testicle. Secondly, the physical, endocrine, and steroidogenic findings of this pharmaceutical protocol are also reported. Twelve postnatal littermate male kittens were administered acyline in a dose of 2.2 mg/100 g SC weekly for 2 weeks (ACY; n = 6), or placebo (PL; n = 6). All the animals were followed up until puberty when they were castrated. Serial faecal samples were collected until the age of 10 weeks for testosterone (T) measurement. The kittens achieved puberty without either age (236.5 ± 19.7 vs. 221.7 ± 23.7 days) or body weight (3.05 ± 0.15 vs. 2.78 ± 0.28 kg, P > 0.05) differences between ACY and PL, respectively. Acyline suppressed faecal T concentrations for 3 weeks (P < 0.01). From the fourth week on, both groups had low concentrations up to the end of the follow-up period (P > 0.05). Histological assessment of the testes showed that ACY cats presented a reduced height of the epithelium (P < 0.01) due to the diminished number of germinal cells accompanied by an enlarged luminal area (P < 0.01) with cellular debris (P < 0.01). The immunostaining of P450c17 also appeared partially diminished in ACY testes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yeon Hee Hong ◽  
Hyun Kyoung Lee ◽  
Seul Ki Kim ◽  
Jung Ryeol Lee ◽  
Chang Suk Suh

Endometrioma is known to reduce the ovarian reserve and the extent of the decrease is more severe when ovarian surgery is performed. Therefore, to prevent this decline in fertility, patients with endometrioma are considered candidates for preoperative fertility preservation (FP). In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of FP in women with endometrioma before planned ovarian surgery. A total of 95 cycles in 62 patients with endometrioma, undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) for FP using a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol before an expected ovarian surgery, were enrolled retrospectively. COS outcomes were compared according to endometrioma laterality. Additionally, first COS cycle outcomes in patients with endometrioma were compared with those in infertile patients, or in patients with a benign ovarian cyst using propensity score matching. When multiple COS cycles were performed, the results of cumulative cycles were analyzed. Embryo quality was worse in the bilateral endometrioma group. Compared with the infertile patient group, the patients with endometrioma had significantly lower Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) and fewer numbers of oocytes retrieved (median, 3.3 vs. 1.2, p&lt;0.001; 7.0 vs. 4.0, p=0.009, respectively). Compared with mature oocytes in infertile patients or patients with a benign cyst, mature oocytes were fewer in patients with endometrioma, but this was not statistically significant (median, 4.0 vs. 3.0, p=0.085; 5.5 vs. 3.0, p=0.052, respectively). The median value of the cumulative number of cryopreserved oocytes or embryos was 14.5 up to the fourth cycle compared to 3 up to the first cycle, with cumulative effect. Women with endometrioma should be counseled for FP before planned ovarian cystectomy. The number of cryopreserved oocytes or embryos can be increased by repeated cycles.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-6
Akira Nakashima ◽  

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of withholding gonadotropins (coasting) and early administration of cabergoline in a flexible Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol for patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS).

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Fumei Gao ◽  
Yanbin Wang ◽  
Dan Wu ◽  
Min Fu ◽  
Qiuxiang Zhang ◽  

This is a retrospective cohort study included 1021 patients underwent a flexible GnRH antagonist IVF protocol from January 2017 to December 2017 to explore the effect of a premature rise in luteinizing hormone (LH) level on the cumulative live birth rate. All patients included received the first ovarian stimulation and finished a follow-up for 3 years. A premature rise in LH was defined as an LH level &gt;10 IU/L or &gt;50% rise from baseline during ovarian stimulation. The cumulative live birth rate was calculated as the number of women who achieved a live birth divided by the total number of women who had either delivered a baby or had used up all their embryos received from the first stimulated cycle. In the advanced patients (≥37 years), the cumulative live birth rate was reduced in patients with a premature rise of LH (β: 0.20; 95% CI: 0.05–0.88; p=0.03), compared to patients (≥37 years) without the premature LH rise. The incidence of premature LH rise is associated with decreased rates of cumulative live birth rate in patients of advanced age (≥37 years) and aggravated the reduced potential of embryos produced by the advanced age, not the number of embryos.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Yiqing Yang ◽  
Bowen Liu ◽  
Gengxiang Wu ◽  
Jing Yang

Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder with the disorders of estrogen(E2) and progesterone(P) secretion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between the progesterone level or progesterone/estradiol(P/E2) ratio on human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger day and the outcome of in vitro fertilization in PCOS patients and explore the value of progesterone and P/E2 ratio for predicting the clinical pregnancy. Methods The clinical data of 1254 PCOS patients who satisfied the inclusion criteria were retrospectively analyzed, including baseline characteristics such as age, body mass index, basal sex hormone levels, et al., as well as ovarian stimulation data and clinic outcome. Results The number of follicles larger than 14 mm in diameter (P < 0.001) and retrieved oocytes (P < 0.001) was greater in the high progesterone group (progesterone ≥ 0.92 ng/mL). In the high P/E2 group(P/E2 ratio ≥ 0.3), the number of follicles larger than 14 mm in diameter (P < 0.001) and retrieved oocytes (P < 0.001), as well as the rate of high-quality embryos (P = 0.040) were significantly decreased. In ultralong GnRH agonist protocol, the implantation rate(P < 0.001), hCG positive rate (P < 0.001), clinical pregnancy rate (P < 0.001) and live birth rate (P < 0.001) were all significantly higher than long GnRH agonist protocol and GnRH antagonist protocol. The clinical pregnancy rate of high progesterone group was significantly lower than that of low progesterone group in ultralong GnRH agonist (P = 0.008). The progesterone level could be used as an indicator to predict the positive clinical pregnancy (long GnRH agonist: P = 0.001; ultralong GnRH agonist: P < 0.001) except in cycles using GnRH antagonist (P = 0.169). In the ultralong GnRH agonist, the value of progesterone level in the prediction of clinical pregnancy was significantly higher than that of the P/E2 ratio (P = 0.021). Conclusions In PCOS patients, the progesterone level is associated with clinical pregnancy rate while P/E2 ratio is not. In subgroup analysis using three different COS protocols, a significant association between progesterone level and clinical pregnancy rate can be observed in the long GnRH agonist protocol and ultralong GnRH agonist protocol. The progesterone level is significantly better than the P/E2 ratio in predicting the pregnancy outcome of PCOS patients, especially in ultralong GnRH agonist cycles.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Ting-Chi Huang ◽  
Mei-Zen Huang ◽  
Kok-Min Seow ◽  
Ih-Jane Yang ◽  
Song-Po Pan ◽  

AbstractUtilizing corifollitropin alfa in GnRH antagonist (GnRHant) protocol in conjunction with GnRH agonist trigger/freeze-all strategy (corifollitropin alfa/GnRHant protocol) was reported to have satisfactory outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Although lessening in gonadotropin injections, GnRHant were still needed. In addition to using corifollitropin alfa, GnRHant was replaced with an oral progestin as in progestin primed ovarian stimulation (PPOS) to further reduce the injection burden in this study. We try to investigate whether this regimen (corifollitropin alfa/PPOS protocol) could effectively reduce GnRHant injections and prevent premature LH surge in PCOS patients undergoing IVF/ICSI cycles. This is a retrospective cohort study recruiting 333 women with PCOS, with body weight between 50 and 70 kg, undergoing first IVF/ICSI cycle between August 2015 and July 2018. We used corifollitropin alfa/GnRHant protocol prior to Jan 2017 (n = 160), then changed to corifollitropin alfa/PPOS protocol (n = 173). All patients received corifollitropin alfa 100 μg on menstruation day 2/3 (S1). Additional rFSH was administered daily from S8. In corifollitropin alfa/GnRHant group, cetrorelix 0.25 mg/day was administered from S5 till the trigger day. In corifollitropin alfa/PPOS group, dydrogesterone 20 mg/day was given from S1 till the trigger day. GnRH agonist was used to trigger maturation of oocyte. All good quality day 5/6 embryos were frozen, and frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) was performed on subsequent cycle. A comparison of clinical outcomes was made between the two protocols. The primary endpoint was the incidence of premature LH surge and none of the patients occurred. Dydrogesterone successfully replace GnRHant to block LH surge while an average of 6.8 days of GnRHant injections were needed in the corifollitropin alfa/GnRHant group. No patients suffered from ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). The other clinical outcomes including additional duration/dose of daily gonadotropin administration, number of oocytes retrieved, and fertilization rate were similar between the two groups. The implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate, and live birth rate in the first FET cycle were also similar between the two groups. In women with PCOS undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment, corifollitropin alfa/PPOS protocol could minimize the injections burden with comparable outcomes to corifollitropin alfa/GnRHant protocol.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Mei Dong ◽  
Li Sun ◽  
Li Huang ◽  
Fang Wang ◽  
Xiqian Zhang ◽  

Protocols utilizing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists have emerged as mainstream procedures for ovarian stimulation; however, GnRH increases the risk for periodic cancellation of embryos. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the pregnancy outcomes of a fixed GnRH antagonist protocol and a flexible progestin-primed ovarian stimulation (fPPOS) protocol in patients with asynchronous follicular development during controlled ovulation stimulation and to explore the feasibility of converting patients undergoing a fixed GnRH antagonist protocol to an fPPOS protocol. This was the first retrospective study exploring the fPPOS protocol in patients with asynchronous follicular development, and it was conducted in a public reproductive medicine center from January to December 2020. We included infertile women. All participants were scheduled to undergo administration of a GnRH antagonist on the fifth day of controlled ovulation stimulation. The study group included 129 women who were converted from the fixed GnRH antagonist protocol to the fPPOS protocol for their asynchronous follicular development, while the antagonist group consisted of 258 women (ratio 1:2) who proceeded with a fixed GnRH antagonist protocol. On the second or third day of the menstrual period, 100–300 IU/day gonadotropin injections were administered. For patients who were converted to the fPPOS protocol, medroxyprogesterone acetate tablets at 10 mg/day were started on the fifth day of stimulation or when only one leading follicle reached 14 mm and the other follicles were ≤10 mm in diameter, whichever came first. The rates of embryo implantation, clinical pregnancy, and early pregnancy loss were obtained. The number of oocytes retrieved and the number of high-quality embryos in the antagonist group were significantly higher than those in the fPPOS group (P = 0.039 and P = 0.025, respectively). No significant differences in the rates of embryo implantation, clinical pregnancy, and early pregnancy loss were observed between the two groups. Our study found that in patients who were scheduled for administration of GnRH antagonists but presented with asynchronous follicular development on the fifth stimulation day, it was feasible to switch to the fPPOS protocol.

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