controlled trials
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2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Xiaolu Zhang ◽  
Zhiwei Wang ◽  
Yiyuan Xian

Objective: The objective was to provide synthesized evidence on the efficacy of local anaesthetics and steroid injections for prevention and management of PHN, compared to the standard treatment using anti-viral and analgesic medications. The primary outcomes of interest were incidence of PHN and duration of neuralgic pain. Methods: Comprehensive searches were done systematically through PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Google scholar databases. Randomized controlled trials that compared the efficacy of local anaesthetics and steroid injections for preventing and managing PHN were included for this meta-analysis. A comprehensive search was done for papers published until 15th July 2021. Results: A total of 10 RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. In the overall pooled analyses, compared to standard care/placebo, those receiving a combination of local anaesthetic and steroid injection had 55% lower risk of PHN at 3 months from onset of rash (RR 0.45; 95% CI, 0.29; 0.70). Out of the different modes of intervention delivery i.e., intravenous, subcutaneous and nerve block, maximum beneficial effect in reducing the incidence of PHN was noted in nerve block (RR 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34, 0.89). Conclusions: The meta-analysis provides some evidence to support the use of combined local anaesthetic and steroids in reducing risk of post-herpetic neuralgia and duration of neuralgic pain in patients with herpes zoster rash. doi: How to cite this:Zhang X, Wang Z, Xian Y. Efficacy of local anaesthetic and steroid combination in prevention of post-herpetic neuralgia: A meta-analysis. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Jian Liu ◽  
Ting Wang ◽  
Zhen-Hua Zhu

Abstract Background The clinical utility of radiofrequency (RF) in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) remains unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of RF treatment in patients with knee OA. Methods Searches of the PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Data databases were performed through August 30, 2021. The major outcomes from published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving patients with knee OA were compared between RF and control groups, including Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) or Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) scores, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Oxford Knee Score (OKS), Global Perceived Effect (GPE) scale, and adverse effects at available follow-up times. Results Fifteen RCTs involving 1009 patients were included in this meta-analysis, and the results demonstrated that RF treatment correlated with improvements in pain relief (VAS/NRS score, all P < 0.001) and knee function (WOMAC, all P < 0.001) at 1–2, 4, 12, and 24 weeks after treatment as well as patients’ degree of satisfaction with treatment effectiveness (GPE scale, 12 weeks, P < 0.001). OKSs did not differ significantly between the two groups. Moreover, treatment with RF did not significantly increase adverse effects. Subgroup analysis of knee pain indicated that the efficacy of RF treatment targeting the genicular nerve was significantly better than intra-articular RF at 12 weeks after treatment (P = 0.03). Conclusions This meta-analysis showed that RF is an efficacious and safe treatment for relieving knee pain and improving knee function in patients with knee OA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Changjiao Sun ◽  
Xiaofei Zhang ◽  
Qi Ma ◽  
Yan Tu ◽  
Xu Cai ◽  

Abstract Introduction The efficacy of tourniquet use during primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is thought to reduce intraoperative blood loss, improve surgical exposure, and optimize cement fixation. Tranexamic acid (TXA) use can decrease postsurgical blood loss and transfusion requirements. This review aimed to appraise the effects of tourniquet use in TKA for patients with tranexamic acid use. Methods A meta-analysis was conducted to identify relevant randomized controlled trials involving TXA plus a tourniquet (TXA-T group) and use of TXA plus no tourniquet (TXA-NT group) in TKA. Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Library, Highwire, CNKI, and Wanfang database were searched from 2010 through October 2021. Results We identified 1720 TKAs (1690 patients) assessed in 14 randomized controlled trials. Compared with the TXA-NT group, the TXA-T group resulted in less intra-operative blood loss (P < 0.00001) and decreased duration of surgery (P < 0.00001), however more hidden blood loss (P = 0.0004) and less knee range of motion (P < 0.00001). No significant differences were found between two groups in terms of decrease in hemoglobin (P = 0.84), total blood loss (P = 0.79), transfusion rate (P = 0.18), drainage volume (P = 0.06), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at either the day of surgery (P = 0.2), 1 day (P = 0.25), 2 day (P = 0.39), 3 day (P = 0.21), 5 day (P = 0.21), 7 day (P = 0.06) or 1 month after surgery (P = 0.16), Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score at either 7 day (P = 0.10), 1 month (P = 0.08), 3 month (P = 0.22) or 6 month after the surgery (P = 0.92), Knee circumference (P = 0.28), length of hospital (P = 0.12), and complications such as intramuscular venous thrombosis (P = 0.81), deep venous thrombosis (P = 0.10), superficial infection (P = 0.45), deep wound infection (P = 0.64), and delayed wound healing (P = 0.65). Conclusion No big differences could be found by using or not tourniquet when use the TXA, though some benefits are related to operation time and less intra-operative blood loss by using tourniquet and TXA, Using the tourniquet was related to more hidden blood loss and less knee range of motion. More adequately powered and better-designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) studies with long-term follow-up are required to validate this study.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Dan Meng ◽  
Yifei Mao ◽  
Quan-mei Song ◽  
Chun-chun Yan ◽  
Qin-yu Zhao ◽  

Objectives. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of transcutaneous acupoint electrical stimulation (TEAS) for postoperative pain in laparoscopy. The review has been registered on the “INPLASY” website and the registration number is INPLASY202150101. Methods. Relevant randomized controlled trials are selected from seven electronic databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chongqing VIP Information, WanFang Data, and Chinese Biomedical Database) from their inception up to November 30, 2020. Twenty-eight studies were included in this meta-analysis, and the statistical analyses and the exploration of heterogeneity sources were conducted by Stata 15.0 software. Besides, the bias assessment of the included studies was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results. In total, 28 RCTs covering 2787 participants were included. The meta-analysis suggested that TEAS can effectively relieve pain in the short term after laparoscopy, reduce the postoperative consumption of rescue analgesics, improve the quality of life of patients, and shorten the length of hospitalization. And no serious adverse events are related to TEAS. Therefore, TEAS is relatively safe and efficacy for clinical application. The most used acupoints were Hegu (LI14), Neiguan (PC6), and Zusanli (ST36). Conclusions. TEAS can be recommended as a complementary and alternative therapy for the treatment of postoperative pain after laparoscopy. However, the included RCTs had some methodological limitations. Therefore, larger-size, more rigorous, and higher-quality RCTs are needed in the future to further explore the efficacy and safety of TEAS for postoperative pain after laparoscopy.

2022 ◽  
Yiwen Qi ◽  
Yue-meng Zhu ◽  
Bin Li

Abstract IntroductionCyclophosphamide (CTX), is reported to be extensively used to establish POI animal model. But the most effective dose has not been systematically concluded yet. This systematic review and network meta-analysis is aimed to compare and rank the different doses of cyclophosphamide in the CTX-induced POI rat model.MethodsRandomized controlled trials of CTX-induced rat POI model were searched in four databases from inception to December, 2021. A network meta-analysis was conducted to analyze the data of included publications. The quality assessment was assessed by SYRCLE’s risk of bias tool. Data were analyzed with STATA 15.0 and Review Manager 5.3.Result205 records were searched and a total of 14 articles met inclusion criteria, Compared by Ovarian morphological changes, estrous cycle and hormone level (FSH, E2, AMH), the loading dose of 200mg/kg CTX with the maintenance dose of 8mg/kg CTX for consecutive 14 days showed the best efficacy in inducing rat POI model.

2022 ◽  
John P.A. Ioannidis

Importance. COVID-19 has resulted in massive production, publication and wide dissemination of clinical studies trying to identify effective treatments. However, several widely touted treatments failed to show effectiveness in large well-done randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Objective. To evaluate for COVID-19 treatments that showed no benefits in subsequent large RCTs how many of their most-cited clinical studies had declared favorable results for these interventions. Methods. Scopus (last update December 23, 2021) identified articles on lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxycholoroquine/azithromycin, remdesivir, convalescent plasma, colchicine or interferon (index interventions) that represented clinical trials and that had received >150 citations. Their conclusions were assessed and correlated with study design features. The ten most recent citations for the most-cited article on each index intervention were examined on whether they were critical to the highly-cited study. Altmetric scores were also obtained. Findings. 40 articles of clinical studies on these index interventions had received >150 citations (7 exceeded 1,000 citations). 20/40 (50%) had favorable conclusions and 4 were equivocal. Highly-cited articles with favorable conclusions were rarely RCTs while those without favorable conclusions were mostly RCTs (3/20 vs 15/20, p=0.0003). Only 1 RCT with favorable conclusions had sample size >160. Citation counts correlated strongly with Altmetric scores, in particular news items. Only 9 (15%) of 60 recent citations to the most highly-cited studies with favorable or equivocal conclusions were critical to the highly-cited study. Conclusion. Many clinical studies with favorable conclusions for largely ineffective COVID-19 treatments are uncritically heavily cited and disseminated. Early observational studies and small randomized trials may cause spurious claims of effectiveness that get perpetuated.

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