healthy children
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Kathrin Rottermann ◽  
Annika Weigelt ◽  
Tim Stäbler ◽  
Benedikt Ehrlich ◽  
Sven Dittrich ◽  

Abstract Purpose Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in preschoolers (4–6 years) represents a challenge. Most studies investigating CPET have been limited to older children (> 8 year). However, knowledge of the performance of small children is essential for evaluating their cardiorespiratory fitness. This study strives to compare a modified Bruce protocol with a new age-appropriate incremental CPET during natural movement running outdoors, using a mobile device. Methods A group of 22 4–6-year-old healthy children was tested indoor on a treadmill (TM) using the modified Bruce protocol. The results were compared with a self-paced incremental running test, using a mobile CPET device in an outdoor park. The speeds were described as (1) slow walking, (2) slow running, (3) regular running, and (4) running with full speed as long as possible. Results Mean exercise time outdoors (6,57 min) was significantly shorter than on the treadmill (11,20 min), $$\dot{V}{O}_{2peak}$$ V ˙ O 2 p e a k (51.1 ml/min/kg vs. 40.1 ml/min/kg), RER (1.1 vs. 0.98) and important CPET parameters such as $$\dot{V}E$$ V ˙ E max, O2pulse, heart rate and breath rate were significantly higher outdoors. The submaximal parameter OUES was comparable between both the tests. Conclusions Testing very young children with a mobile device is a new alternative to treadmill testing. With a significantly shorter test duration, significantly higher values for almost all cardiopulmonary variables can be achieved without losing the ability to determine VT1 and VT2. It avoids common treadmill problems and allows for individualized exercise testing. The aim is to standardize exercise times with individual protocols instead of standardizing protocols with individual exercise times, allowing for better comparability.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Hana Saffar ◽  
Sayed Jaber Mousavi ◽  
Hiva Saffar ◽  
Mohammad-Reza Parsaei ◽  
Gholam-Reza Ghorbani ◽  

Abstract Background Despite high rate of vaccination coverage with 2-doses of measles containing vaccine among Iranian children, outbreaks of measles occurred among different age groups and fully vaccinated subjects. Although the main reason for these outbreaks is unknown, however, vaccine failure was supposed to be an important cause. This study was designed to determine the seroconversion rates to measles- mumps- rubella (MMR) vaccine currently in use among Iranian children. Methods This prospective study was conducted among healthy children older than 12 months who were candidates of scheduled MMR vaccination. Blood samples were obtained from each mother- infant pair just before vaccination, and from infants 4–6 weeks after MMR1 and MMR2 immunization. Collected sera were tested for specific lgG antibodies against MMR agents using ELISA method. The proportion of seroprotected subjects among mother- infant pairs before vaccination as well as the prevalence rates of seroconversion after MMR1 and MMR2 vaccination were calculated. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistical methods. Results During 22-months study period, 92 mother- infant pairs were participated. Seroimmunity rates against MMR viruses were 85.8%, 84.7% and 86.9% for mothers, and 3.2%, 2.1% and 1.0% for children, respectively. After MMR1 vaccination from 52 seronegative children, 80.7%, 78.8% and 75% were seroconverted. These rates increased to 94.8%, 89.7% and 94.8% after the MMR2 vaccination. Also, the specific immunity was enhanced among seropositive children. Conclusion Majority of the mothers and few infants were immune to MMR viruses prior to MMR1 vaccination. Immune responses detected after MMR1 injection, and overall seroconversion rates achieved after 2-doses of MMR vaccination were less than expected and inadequate to preserve long-term protection against MMR agents.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Mi Yeon Song ◽  
Young Hoon Hwang

AbstractEvaluation of interocular asymmetry of optical coherence tomography (OCT) parameters is important for the glaucoma and optic neuropathies. This study was performed to evaluate the interocular asymmetry of OCT parameters in healthy children and adolescents. The circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, optic nerve head (ONH) parameters, and macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness were measured in 620 eyes of 310 healthy children and adolescents using Cirrus HD-OCT. The interocular asymmetry (right eye–left eye) in the OCT parameters was analyzed. The mean ± standard deviation age was 10.3 ± 3.7 years (range 5–17). The right eyes showed thinner superior quadrant RNFL, thicker nasal and temporal quadrant RNFL, lesser rim and disc areas, and thinner average, superior, and superonasal GCIPL than the left eyes (P < 0.05). The 2.5th and 97.5th percentile interocular difference tolerance limits were − 9.0 μm and 11.0 μm for average RNFL thickness, − 0.21 and 0.18 for average cup-to-disc ratio, and − 4.0 μm and 4.0 μm for average GCIPL thickness, respectively. Interocular differences were found in RNFL thickness, ONH parameters, and GCIPL thickness in healthy children and adolescents. These findings should be considered when comparing OCT parameters between the right and left eyes.

2022 ◽  
Sara Sadeghi ◽  
yasamin kalantari ◽  
Sima Shokri ◽  
Morteza Fallahpour ◽  
Nahid Nafissi ◽  

Backgrounds: Children and adolescnets form a large proportion of societies and play an important role in the transmission of Covid-19. On the other hand, their education, mental and physical wellness, and safety are compromised which makes vaccination a crucial step to return to normal life. Aim and Objectives: To collect and summarize all data about the immune response, effectiveness, and safety of available Covid-19 vaccines for people aged 2 - 21 years old. Methods: A thorough systematic review was performed on available publications in English language regarding immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety of Covid-19 vaccines in individuals aged 2 - 21 years old. Types of selected studies were clinical trials, observational studies, and cohort. Searched databases comprised Ovid Medline, Cochrane Library, Embase, Scopus, Web of Sciences, Google Scholar, and website. Data extraction and analysis were performed in Microsoft Word software, version 16.56. Results: the Covid-19 vaccination was evaluated in a total of 50,148 children and adolescents in 22 published studies and 5,279 participants in two ongoing clinical trials. Data was collected about multiple vaccines including BNT162b2 (Pfizer), mRNA-1273 (Moderna), JNJ-78436735 (Johnson and Johnson), CoronaVac (Sinovac), BBIBP-CorV (Sinopharm), adenovirus type-5-vectored vaccine, ZyCov-D, and BBV152 (Covaxin). The immune response and efficacy of such vaccines were 96% - 100% in healthy children and adolescents and were also acceptable in those with underlying disease and suppressed immune system. The current systematic review revealed favourable safety profiles of employed vaccines in children and adolescents; however, adverse reactions such as myocarditis and myopericarditis were reported which were transient and resolved entirely. Conclusion: Vaccinating children and adolescents aged 2 - 21 years old is beneficial to abort the Covid-19 pandemic. Moreover, the risk-benefit assessments revealed favourable results for vaccinating children and adolescents, especially those with underlying disease, alongside adults to prevent transmission, severe infection, negative outcomes, and new variants formation. Keywords: Covid-19; Vaccination; Immunization; Children; Adolescents; Systematic Review

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Meng Li ◽  
Xiaoming Wang ◽  
Xingjie Lin ◽  
Xiuju Bian ◽  
Rui Jing ◽  

Background: Henoch-Schönlein purpura, now called immunoglobulin A (IgA) vasculitis, is a common autoimmune disease in children, its association with gut microbiota composition remains unknown.Methods: The collected cases were divided into three groups: G1 group of simple skin type, G2 group with no digestive tract expression, G3 group of mixed digestive tract, and C group of healthy children. The fecal samples of each group of children were collected and the sequencing data was processed and analyzed. The dilution curve reflected the reasonableness of the amount of sequencing data.Results: The number of species composition sequences in the G1, G2 and G3 groups was lower than that in the C group, especially for the G2 and G3 groups. The four most abundant bacteria were Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria in the G2 and G3 groups was significantly higher than that in the G1 and C groups, while the relative abundance of Actinobacteria was significantly reduced, and the relative abundance of Actinobacteria in the G1 group was lower than that in the C group. Principal component analysis of the UPGMA clustering tree and each group of samples showed that the microbial community composition of the same group of samples was similar.Conclusions: The abundance of intestinal microbes in children with IgA vasculitis is lower than in normal children. Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria are the four most abundant bacteria in the intestinal flora of children. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria are associated with organ involvement in IgA vasculitis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (6) ◽  
pp. 21-25
Archana Verma ◽  
Ramesh Kumar Gautam

In this modern era of changing lifestyles, people and children cannot follow the rules of Dincharya and Ritucharya. Children have insufficient nutrients due to irregular food habits, which are triggering factors that cause childhood Karshya, resulting in mental and physical conditions that will not adequately develop. Biological and mentally healthy children are vital parts of a well-developed Nation, and this can be done by supplying nutritional requirements. The research was conducted in Bal Rog OPD, SAC and Hospital Lucknow. In this clinical trial total of 50 patients were selected and divided into group A and group B, having 25 in each group. Group A was treated with Egg Yolk Basti, and group B was treated with Vidarikandadi Granules for three months. In group A, 14 (56%) patients were relieved, 7 (28.0%) patients were moderately improved, 3 (12.0%) patients were mildly improved, and one patient did not show any response. In group B, 13 (52%) patients were relieved, 8 (32.0%) patients were moderately improved, 3 (12.0%) patients were mildly improved, and one patient did not show any response. This study indicates that Egg Yolk Basti and Vidarikandadi Granules can be effective in childhood Karshya.

2022 ◽  
pp. 000348942110676
Flora Yan ◽  
Victoria Huang ◽  
Shaun A. Nguyen ◽  
William W. Carroll ◽  
Clarice S. Clemmens ◽  

Objective: Hospital admission following pediatric adenoidectomy without tonsillectomy is not well characterized. The objective of our study is to better characterize risk factors for post-operative complications in younger children undergoing inpatient adenoidectomy. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis using data derived from the Kid’s Inpatient Database (KID) was performed. Study participants included children <3 years of age who underwent an adenoidectomy and were admitted to hospitals participating in the KID for years 1997, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009, and 2012. Descriptive statistical analysis and a multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to identify risk factors for post-operative complication. Results: A total of 3406 children (mean age 1.1 ± 0.7 years) were included. The overall post-operative bleeding and respiratory complication rates were 0.6% and 5.4%, respectively. Children less than 18 months of age demonstrated increased rates of post-operative respiratory complications ( P = .009), but not bleeding complications ( P = .857). Presence of cardiopulmonary congenital malformations (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.07-2.20), chronic respiratory disease of the newborn (OR 5.03, 95% CI 2.86-8.85), and neuromuscular disorders (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.09-3.57) were associated with post-operative respiratory distress. Conclusions: This analysis of a national dataset suggests that otherwise healthy children less than 18 months of age and children 18 months to 3 years of age with certain comorbidities may benefit from overnight observation following adenoidectomy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Jingjing Xiong ◽  
Hongwei Hu ◽  
Chuanzhi Xu ◽  
Jianwen Yin ◽  
Mei Liu ◽  

Abstract Background To reveal the changes of intestinal microbial abundance and composition, as well as the microbiota metabolic levels of bile acids and short chain fatty acids of healthy preschool children during their growth. Methods Feces of 120 healthy newborns and 150 healthy children aged 6 months to 6 years were collected. Then the composition of intestinal flora was analyzed by 16S rRNA, and the contents of bile acids and short chain fatty acids in feces were detected by LC-MS and GS methods, respectively. Results The composition and function of intestinal microflora were not stable in neonatal period but significantly improved at 6 months after birth, and gradually stabilized and tended to adult-like formation after 2–3 years old. The levels of short chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids were consistent with the development of gut microbiota. Conclusion The age of 6 months may be a critical period for the development of intestinal microflora in children.

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