Virtual Reality
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Author(s):  
Denis Bienroth ◽  
Hieu T. Nim ◽  
Dimitar Garkov ◽  
Karsten Klein ◽  
Sabrina Jaeger-Honz ◽  
...  

AbstractSpatially resolved transcriptomics is an emerging class of high-throughput technologies that enable biologists to systematically investigate the expression of genes along with spatial information. Upon data acquisition, one major hurdle is the subsequent interpretation and visualization of the datasets acquired. To address this challenge, VR-Cardiomicsis presented, which is a novel data visualization system with interactive functionalities designed to help biologists interpret spatially resolved transcriptomic datasets. By implementing the system in two separate immersive environments, fish tank virtual reality (FTVR) and head-mounted display virtual reality (HMD-VR), biologists can interact with the data in novel ways not previously possible, such as visually exploring the gene expression patterns of an organ, and comparing genes based on their 3D expression profiles. Further, a biologist-driven use-case is presented, in which immersive environments facilitate biologists to explore and compare the heart expression profiles of different genes.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Author(s):  
Seyedeh Pegah Kiaei Ziabari ◽  
Zahra Ofoghi ◽  
Emma A. Rodrigues ◽  
Diane Gromala ◽  
Sylvain Moreno

Chronic Pain (CP) is prevalent in industrialized countries and stands among the top 10 causes of disability. Given the widespread problems of pharmacological treatments such as opioids, a need to find alternative therapeutic approaches has emerged. Virtual Reality (VR) has shown potential as a non-pharmacological alternative for controlling pain over the past 20 years. The effectiveness of VR has been demonstrated in treating CP, and it has been suggested that VR’s analgesic effects may be associated with the Sense of Embodiment (SoE): the sensation of being inside, having and controlling a virtual body in VR. Studies have shown correlations among brain signals, reported pain and a SoE, and correlations have been observed between using an avatar in VR and pain alleviation among CP patients. However, little has been published about the changes in brain physiology associated with having an avatar in VR, and current published studies present methodological issues. Defining a proper methodology to investigate the underlying brain mechanisms of pain, a SoE associated with having an avatar in VR, and its effect on reducing pain in CP patients is key to the emerging field of VR-analgesia. Here, we propose an intervention trial design (test/intervention/test) to evaluate the effects of having a virtual avatar in VR on pain levels and SoE in CP patients using Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. Resting-state EEG recordings, perceived pain levels, and SoE scores will be collected before and after the VR intervention. Patients diagnosed with CP will be recruited from local pain clinics and pseudo-randomly assigned to one of two groups—with or without an avatar. Patients will experience a 10-min VR intervention built to treat CP while their EEG signals are recorded. In articulating the study procedure, we propose a framework for future studies that explores the mechanisms of VR-analgesia in patients with chronic pain.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
David Harris ◽  
Tom Arthur ◽  
Toby de Burgh ◽  
Mike Duxbury ◽  
Ross Lockett-Kirk ◽  
...  

Objective: The aim of this work was to examine the fidelity and validity of an aviation simulation using eye tracking. Background: Commercial head-mounted virtual reality (VR) systems offer a convenient and cost-effective alternative to existing aviation simulation (e.g., for refresher exercises). We performed pre-implementation testing of a novel aviation simulation, designed for head-mounted VR, to determine its fidelity and validity as a training device. Method: Eighteen airline pilots, with varying levels of flight experience, completed a sequence of training ‘flows’. Self-reported measures of presence and workload and users’ perceptions of fidelity were taken. Pilots’ eye movements and performance were recorded to determine whether more experienced pilots showed distinct performance and eye gaze profiles in the simulation, as they would in the real-world. Results: Real-world expertise correlated with eye gaze patterns characterised by fewer, but longer, fixations and a scan path that was more structured and less random. Multidimensional scaling analyses also indicated differential clustering of strategies in more versus less experienced pilots. Subjective ratings of performance, however, showed little relationship with real-world expertise or eye movements. Conclusion: We adopted an evidence-based approach to assessing the fidelity and validity of a VR flight training tool. Pilot reports indicated the simulation was realistic and potentially useful for training, while direct measurement of eye movements was useful for establishing construct validity and psychological fidelity of the simulation.


Vision ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 3
Author(s):  
Rébaï Soret ◽  
Pom Charras ◽  
Christophe Hurter ◽  
Vsevolod Peysakhovich

Recent studies on covert attention suggested that the visual processing of information in front of us is different, depending on whether the information is present in front of us or if it is a reflection of information behind us (mirror information). This difference in processing suggests that we have different processes for directing our attention to objects in front of us (front space) or behind us (rear space). In this study, we investigated the effects of attentional orienting in front and rear space consecutive of visual or auditory endogenous cues. Twenty-one participants performed a modified version of the Posner paradigm in virtual reality during a spaceship discrimination task. An eye tracker integrated into the virtual reality headset was used to make sure that the participants did not move their eyes and used their covert attention. The results show that informative cues produced faster response times than non-informative cues but no impact on target identification was observed. In addition, we observed faster response times when the target occurred in front space rather than in rear space. These results are consistent with an orienting cognitive process differentiation in the front and rear spaces. Several explanations are discussed. No effect was found on subjects’ eye movements, suggesting that participants did not use their overt attention to improve task performance.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 467
Author(s):  
Ling-Long Tsai

The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically restricted domestic and foreign travel; thus, virtual tourism has become a new option for traveling. As regards virtual tourism, the present study seeks to investigate the effect of tourist involvement on the three components of holistic image, namely cognitive, affective, and conative images; the influence of cognitive, affective, and conative images on the construction of the holistic image; and the moderating effect of sense of presence on the relationships between cognitive, affective, and conative images on the holistic image. Prospective tourists were chosen as research subjects in the present study on non-immersive virtual reality (VR) tourism, or virtual tourism. Participants first watched the 360° VR tour video of AirPano. Afterward, they filled out an online questionnaire, of which 386 valid samples were collected for analyses. Results show that tourist involvement considerably affects cognitive, affective, and conative images, which significantly influence the holistic image. Furthermore, a sense of presence was found to positively moderate the relationships between (1) cognitive and holistic, (2) affective and holistic, and (3) conative and holistic images. These results may allow tourism marketing organizations to better understand how to strengthen the holistic image in the context of virtual tourism.


Author(s):  
Yu Wang ◽  
Ziran Hu ◽  
Pengyu Li ◽  
Shouwen Yao ◽  
Hui Liu

AbstractVirtual reality (VR) has been proved as a promising tool for industrial design, but the traditional VR interface of first-person perspective (1PP) is not efficient to support assemblability assessment in narrow assembly spaces. In this paper, we proposed the multi-perspectives interface (MPI) which integrates the 1PP and the third-person perspective (3PP) using the handheld world-in-miniature (WIM). The MPI allows users to simulate the assembly operations in a natural manner similar to 1PP, while providing users with an overview of the assembly status through the WIM to assess the assemblability with superior spatial awareness. Two studies were conducted to test the performance of the proposed MPI. The first study tested user’s interaction performance in MPI using a common interaction task, which reveals stronger spatial awareness in MPI than in 1PP without the cost of losing natural interaction. Based on the results of the first study, the second study tested the performance, usability, and workload of MPI in an assemblability assessment task. The results show the advantages of MPI in the reachability evaluation in the narrow spaces. The main contribution of this paper is improving the interface and user-interface interaction in VR-aided assembly assessment system to improve user’s interaction performance and assessment ability in narrow assembly spaces.


2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. V2

In this video, the authors highlight the applications of virtual reality and heads-up display in skull base surgery by presenting the case of a 45-year-old woman with an incidental large clinoid meningioma extending into the posterior fossa. The patient underwent preoperative endovascular tumor embolization to facilitate tumor resection and reduce blood loss, followed by a right pterional craniotomy. The use of intraoperative Doppler, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, and endoscope-assisted microsurgery is also featured. A subtotal resection was planned given tumor encasement of the posterior communicating and anterior choroidal arteries. No new neurological deficits were noted after the surgical procedure. The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.10.FOCVID21177


2022 ◽  
Vol 1212 (1) ◽  
pp. 012005
Author(s):  
X Guo ◽  
Z Shen ◽  
X Teng ◽  
Z Zhao

Abstract Smart building has a pivotal role in promoting the industrialization of buildings. Meeting room is a common type of public space. Developing a smart meeting space can play an important role in addressing the issue of research on smart building. In this paper, we develop a smart meeting space with AI product to support moderator. We create 3D model of the meeting room and import it into VR headset to having an experiment. 20 participants are engaged to answer questionnaire and have interview. The results of this study show that most of the participants think the meeting space we develop is smart than usual one. We also found that participants expect functions of smart meeting room in AI assistance, energy saving, smart display solution, remote meeting. And participants expect devices of smart meeting room in AI assistance product, sensors, and devices for remote meeting.


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