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Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (21) ◽  
pp. 6991
Zehou Xiang ◽  
Kesai Li ◽  
Hucheng Deng ◽  
Yan Liu ◽  
Jianhua He ◽  

Tight sandstone oil and gas reservoirs are widely distributed, rich in resources, with a bright prospect for exploration and development in China. Due to multiple evolutions of the structure and sedimentary system, the gas–water distribution laws are complicated in tight sandstone gas reservoirs in the northern Ordos area. It is difficult to identify gas and water layers in the study area. In addition, in the development and production, various factors, such as the failure of the instrument, the difference in construction parameters (injected sand volume, flowback rate), poor test results, and multi-layer joint testing lead to unreliable gas test results. Then, the inaccurate logging responses will be screened by unreliable gas test results for different types of fluids. It is hard to make high-precision fluid logging identification charts or models. Therefore, this article combines gas logging, well logging, testing and other data to research the test and logging data quality classification. Firstly, we select reliable standard samples through the initial gas test results. Secondly, we analyze the four main factors which affect the inaccuracy of gas test results. Thirdly, according to these factors, the flowback rate and the sand volume are determined as the main parameters. Then, we establish a recognition chart of injected sand volume/gas–water ratio. Finally, we proposed an evaluation method for testing quality classification. It provides a test basis for the subsequent identification of gas and water through the second logging interpretation. It also provides a theoretical basis for the exploration and evaluation of tight oil and gas reservoirs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-18
Yuyu Zhu ◽  
Zuming Wang ◽  
Xin Cao ◽  
Li Wu

In wireless power transmission systems, the inductance, equivalent resistance, and quality factors of the coils are the main factors that influence the system’s transmission efficiency. When designing high-power wireless charging coils for electric vehicles (EVs), ferrite bricks that increase magnetic flux can be selected to increase the self-inductance of the coils, improving the wireless transmission distance and transmission efficiency. In this paper, the effects of the ferrite bricks, the size of the coils, the charging distance, and many other factors in real applications have been extensively studied. After theoretical analysis and simulation, the wireless transmission system has been fabricated and measured. The measured and simulated results are in good agreement. High-power high-efficiency wireless power transmission has been achieved for EVs compared with many other previous literatures.

Benedetta Ragni ◽  
Francesca Boldrini ◽  
Ilaria Buonomo ◽  
Paula Benevene ◽  
Teresa Grimaldi Capitello ◽  

Sensitive caregiver–child interactions appear fundamental throughout childhood, supporting infants’ wellbeing and development not only in a familial context but in professional caregiving as well. The main aim of this review was to examine the existing literature about Early Childhood Education Context (ECEC) intervention studies dedicated to caregiver–child interaction, fostering children’s socioemotional developmental pathways. Studies published between January 2007 and July 2021 were identified in four electronic databases following PRIMSA guidelines. The initial search yielded a total of 342 records. Among them, 48 studies were fully reviewed. Finally, 18 of them met all inclusion criteria and formed the basis for this review. Main factors characterizing implemented programs were recorded (e.g., intervention and sample characteristics, dimensions of the teacher–child interaction targeted by the intervention, outcome variables, main results) in order to frame key elements of ECE intervention programs. Our review points to a range of fundamental issues that should consider to enhance ECEC interventions’ efficacy, supporting children’s socioemotional development and caregiver–child interaction. Reflections and considerations for future research are provided.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (21) ◽  
pp. 5337
Stefanie Moritz ◽  
Matthias Krause ◽  
Jessica Schlatter ◽  
Nils Cordes ◽  
Anne Vehlow

Glioblastoma is a tumor type of unmet need despite the development of multimodal treatment strategies. The main factors contributing to the poor prognosis of glioblastoma patients are diverse genetic and epigenetic changes driving glioblastoma persistence and recurrence. Complemented are these factors by extracellular cues mediated through cell surface receptors, which further aid in fostering pro-invasion and pro-survival signaling contributing to glioblastoma therapy resistance. The underlying mechanisms conferring this therapy resistance are poorly understood. Here, we show that the cytoskeleton regulator Lamellipodin (Lpd) mediates invasiveness, proliferation and radiosensitivity of glioblastoma cells. Phosphoproteome analysis identified the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling axis commonly hyperactive in glioblastoma to depend on Lpd. Mechanistically, EGFR signaling together with an interaction between Lpd and the Rapamycin-insensitive companion of mammalian target of rapamycin (RICTOR) jointly regulate glioblastoma radiosensitivity. Collectively, our findings demonstrate an essential function of Lpd in the radiation response and invasiveness of glioblastoma cells. Thus, we uncover a novel Lpd-driven resistance mechanism, which adds an additional critical facet to the complex glioblastoma resistance network.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 42-48
Wahyu Dwianto ◽  
Ikuho Iida ◽  
Kazuya Minato

This paper deals with softening behaviour measurements of Indonesian wood species by static bending tests. Wood samples with a size of 110mm (R) x 10mm (T) x 4mm (L) were bending tested in air-dry at 20°C and 65% relative humidity (RH), in water saturation at 20°C, and in water saturation at 80°C to know the decreasing of modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture (MOR) due to moisture content (MC) and both moisture content and temperature (MCT) changes. The wood samples represented Randu (Bombax ceiba. L) as the lowest specific gravity, i.e. 0.27 to Lamtoro (Leucaena glauca (Willd) Benth) as the highest specific gravity, i.e. 0.81. The three-point static bending test was carried out by a mechanical testing machine with a load capacity of 100kgf, loading deflection speed of 5mm/min, a span distance of 80mm at a room with a temperature of 20°C and 65% RH for air-dry wood samples, and that for wet wood samples were conducted in a water bath at 20°C (change in MC) and 80°C (change in MCT), respectively. MOE and MOR increased linearly with specific gravity regardless of wood species. On the other hand, maximum deflection did not correlate with specific gravity for any MCT conditions. The relative MOE and MOR which were calculated in wet 20°C to air-dry were affected from hardly to strongly depending on the wood species. Meanwhile, they decreased extremely when saturated in water at 80°C regardless of wood species. The relative MOE and MOR due to the change in MC or MCT was independent of specific gravity, as well. Furthermore, chemical compositions of the wood species were analysed to clarify the main factors that affected the decreasing of MOE and MOR due to MC and MCT changes. The results showed that the percentage of lignin and hemicelluloses in each wood played an important role in decreasing the static bending properties. Relative MOE and MOR decreased with increasing lignin and hemicellulose contents. It can be concluded that the hygrothermal properties of lignin and hemicelluloses significantly affect the changes of elastic and strength properties of wood in softening conditions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 233 (5) ◽  
pp. S143
Michelle R. Ju ◽  
Gilbert Z. Murimwa ◽  
Sam C. Wang ◽  
Matthew R. Porembka ◽  
John C. Mansour ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (21) ◽  
pp. 4884
Katarzyna Walicka-Serzysko ◽  
Magdalena Postek ◽  
Justyna Milczewska ◽  
Dorota Sands

(1) Background: Pulmonary exacerbation (PEx) is one of the main factors affecting the quality of life and life expectancy in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Our study aimed to evaluate the change in selected pulmonary function parameters, including lung clearance index (LCI), in patients with CF diagnosed with PEx. (2) Methods: We enrolled 40 children with CF aged 6–17. They performed spirometry and multiple breath nitrogen washout (MBNW) tests during a stable condition period at the beginning and the end of intravenous antibiotic treatment. (3) Results: LCI increased by 65% and FEV1 decreased by ≥10% in 40% of patients with CF during PEx. An absolute change in LCI between a stable condition period and PEx was 1.05 (±1.92) units, which corresponds to a relative change of 11.48% (±18.61) of the baseline. The relative decrease in FEV1 was −9.22% (±12.00) and the z-score was −0.67 (±1.13). After the PEx treatment, FEV1 increased by 11.05% (±9.04) on average, whereas LCI decreased by 1.21 ± 1.59 units on average, which represented 9.42% ± 11.40 compared to the value at the beginning of PEx. (4) Conclusions: The change in LCI captures a higher proportion of events with functional impairment than FEV1 in school-age children with CF.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (21) ◽  
pp. 4265
Cesar Alvites ◽  
Giovanni Santopuoli ◽  
Markus Hollaus ◽  
Norbert Pfeifer ◽  
Mauro Maesano ◽  

Timber assortments are some of the most important goods provided by forests worldwide. To quantify the amount and type of timber assortment is strongly important for socio-economic purposes, but also for accurate assessment of the carbon stored in the forest ecosystems, regardless of their main function. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) became a promising tool for timber assortment assessment compared to the traditional surveys, allowing reconstructing the tree architecture directly and rapidly. This study aims to introduce an approach for timber assortment assessment using TLS data in a mixed and multi-layered Mediterranean forest. It consists of five steps: (1) pre-processing, (2) timber-leaf discrimination, (3) stem detection, (4) stem reconstruction, and (5) timber assortment assessment. We assume that stem form drives the stem reconstruction, and therefore, it influences the timber assortment assessment. Results reveal that the timber-leaf discrimination accuracy is 0.98 through the Random Forests algorithm. The overall detection rate for all trees is 84.4%, and all trees with a diameter at breast height larger than 0.30 m are correctly identified. Results highlight that the main factors hindering stem reconstruction are the presence of defects outside the trunk, trees poorly covered by points, and the stem form. We expect that the proposed approach is a starting point for valorising the timber resources from unmanaged/managed forests, e.g., abandoned forests. Further studies to calibrate its performance under different forest stand conditions are furtherly required.

Bibliosphere ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 45-50
J. Zemengue

The reference services in Cameroonian libraries are lagging in the exercise of their activities. Thus, this study raises the problem of the organization and functioning of reference services in the libraries of Cameroon. The purpose of the research is to provide an updated view of research issues in reference services in the libraries of the Republic of Cameroon. It outlines the definition of the notion «reference service»; opens his essence, characteristics, and content; reveals the current state of reference services for Cameroonian libraries and the main factors influencing the activities of reference services in libraries of Cameroon. The research defines the attributes of a reference librarian and proposes and defines several ways and trends for the future improvement of reference services in the libraries of Cameroon. As part of the research conducted, the following methods were used: observation and interviews carried out in Cameroon libraries. The results of this study would, no doubt, be of great benefit to all libraries in Cameroon and should ideally be completed by the Cameroonian reference services.

A. Yu. Popova ◽  
T. A. Ruzhentsova ◽  
D. A. Khavkina ◽  
L. N. Tuychiev ◽  
M. D. Akhmedova ◽  

The results of the joint work of a panel of experts from Rospotrebnadzor and healthcare professionals of the Republic of Uzbekistan on organizing activities to counter the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus are described in the paper.The goal of the study was to determine the main driving forces of COVID-19 spread in the Republic of Uzbekistan and develop an action plan to reduce the incidence of coronavirus infection caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.Materials and methods. The organization of work in 14 health care institutions in Tashkent and Samarkand, as well as in Tashkent and Samarkand Regions, was analyzed: in 7 laboratories, 6 hospitals and 1 polyclinic. The routes for the movement of personnel, the demarcation of green and red zones, the features of disinfection and the use of personal protective equipment were studied. Attention is drawn to the diagnosis of COVID-19, the use of therapy aimed at reducing the period of virus shedding, the criteria for lifting quarantine restrictions for patients.Results and discussion. The main factors in the organization of work of institutions that contribute to the spread of COVID-19 among medical personnel and the population have been identifed: the lack of equipped gateways between the red and green zones with the accessibility of adequate disinfection, the wrong choice of personal protective equipment, monitoring of contact persons for 10 days, discharge from hospitals based on clinical improvement. The incorrect use of antiviral therapy, the lack of differentiated approaches to the selection of optimal regimens have been noted. Proposals are formulated for organizing the work of healthcare institutions, taking into account the requirements of biological safety. The introduction of targeted measures in addition to those previously adopted has led to a signifcant improvement in the epidemic situation: the total number of active cases in the Republic of Uzbekistan, despite the increase in testing volumes, decreased from 3,686 people on August 23 to 2335 on October 27. Towards December 20, 2020, 97 % of patients recovered completely. All diagnostic triage centers in the Republic of Uzbekistan are closed due to the absence of patients with COVID-19, most of the country’s medical institutions previously re-profled for patients with coronavirus infection have returned to the routine operations.

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