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2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (7) ◽  
pp. 359-380
I. G. Aktamov ◽  
Yu. G. Grigoreva

The issues of the reasons, factors and features of labor migration of Mongolian citizens to the Republic of Korea in the post-socialist period of the country’s development are considered. The results of a comparative analysis of the data of official statistics, government bodies of Mongolia and the Republic of Korea, as well as international organizations are presented. A review of scientific works on this issue by domestic, Mongolian, South Korean authors is carried out. The relevance of the study is due to the need to analyze migration processes, which in the near future will determine the socio-economic development of the states of Northeast Asia, taking into account the age, professional, gender characteristics of the “receiving” and “arriving” communities. It has been proven that the government of Mongolia pays great attention to migration policy, which emphasizes the migration of Mongolian citizens to the Republic of Korea. The authors identified the main factors influencing migration flows, and also determined the mechanisms of state regulation in the recent historical period. In the conclusion, the results of the analysis carried out on the problem and the prospects for the development of the study are formulated, including in the field of studying migration flows from the border regions of the Russian Federation. 

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Mayssoon Dashash ◽  
Mounzer Boubou

Abstract Background Health professionals should have certain degree of empathy to eliminate the pain and suffering of their patients. There is a need to design a scale, which can assess empathy among health professionals and is relevant to community and culture. Therefore, this study was undertaken to measure the empathy among Syrian health professionals and students of health professions using a newly designed Syrian Empathy Scale that is relevant to community during Syrian crisis. Methods A cross-sectional observational study was undertaken. A total of 214 participants (118 males and 96 females) responded to the Syrian Empathy Scale SES from Medical (n = 62), Dental (n = 152). They were 59 undergraduates, 116 postgraduates and 39 general practitioners. The SES was designed as a tool that includes 20 items in a 7-point Likert-type scale with overall score ranges from 20 to 140. Group comparisons of the empathy scores were conducted using t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). A factor analysis was performed. Bartlett’s test of the sphericity and the KMO measure of sampling adequacy were also determined. Cronbach’s alpha was calculated. Results A significant difference was found between males and females in the SES mean score. The ANOVA analysis showed that the SES empathy scores of dentists were higher than the SES empathy scores in medical doctors with no significant difference. The SES empathy score of undergraduates was significantly higher than postgraduates and practitioners. Findings of KMO indicated sampling adequacy (KMO = 0.824 > 0.7) and the value of Bartlett’s test of the sphericity (1255.65, df = 190, P-value< 0.001) proved that the factor analysis is meaningful and acceptable. The results of varimax rotation proved that five main factors were retained. Conclusion Findings of this study support the reliability of the newly designed Syrian Empathy Scale for measuring empathy in the field of health care. The SES can be suggested for assessing empathy in different health educational programs. However, future works are still essential to support the validity of the scale as well as to ascertain the role of empathy in improving health care.

Muhammad Waqas ◽  
Shahzad Zafar Iqbal ◽  
Ahmad Faizal Abdull Razis ◽  
Wajeeha Pervaiz ◽  
Touheed Ahmad ◽  

Aflatoxins (AFs) are secondary metabolites toxic to humans as well as animals. The environmental conditions, conventional agricultural practices, and illiteracy are the main factors which favor the production of AFs in food and feed. In the current study 744 samples of vegetable seeds and oils (soybean, sunflower, canola, olive, corn, and mustard) were collected and tested for the presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and total AFs. Liquid-liquid extraction was employed for the extraction of AFs from seeds and oil samples. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detection was used for the analysis. The results have shown that 92 (56.7%) samples of imported and 108 (57.0%) samples of local edible seeds were observed to be contaminated with AFs. All samples of edible seeds have AFB1 levels greater than the proposed limit set by the European Union (EU, 2 µg/kg) and 12 (7.40%) samples of imported seeds and 14 (7.40%) samples of local seeds were found in the range ≥ 50 µg/kg. About 78 (43.3%) samples of imported edible oil and 103 (48.3%) sample of local edible oil were observed to be positive for AFs. Furthermore, 16 (8.88%) and six (3.33%) samples of imported vegetable oil have levels of total AFs in a range (21–50 µg/kg) and greater than 50 µg/kg, respectively. The findings indicate significant differences in AFs levels between imported and local vegetable oil samples (t = 22.27 and p = 0.009) at α = 0.05 and a significant difference in AFs levels were found between vegetable seeds and oil samples (t = −17.75, p = 0.009) at α = 0.05. The highest dietary intake was found for a local sunflower oil sample (0.90 µg/kg/day) in female individuals (16–22 age group). The results have shown considerably high levels of AFB1 and total AFs in seeds and oil samples and emphasise the need to monitor carefully the levels of these toxic substances in food and feed on regular basis.

Jian Zhang ◽  
Dan Li ◽  
Jianmin Gao

Background: China is becoming an aging society, and the proportion of the population aged 60 years and above is increasing. There is a dualistic urban–rural economic structure between urban and rural areas in China, but there are few comparative health studies on the self-assessed health (SAH) status of the elderly between urban and rural areas. The aim of this study is to explore the SAH status of the elderly in China, and to identify the health disparity between the urban and rural elderly. Methods: The data from the fourth wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) in 2018 were adopted. A total of 9630 participants aged 60 and above were included in this study. SAH was used as the indicator, measuring the health status. Fairlie decomposition analysis was conducted to find the SAH disparity. Results: The proportion of good SAH of the rural elderly (24.01%) was significantly higher than the urban elderly (19.99%). The association of SAH was widely different between the rural and urban elderly. There was a stronger association between SAH and sleeping time in the urban elderly (Odds ratios (OR) = 3.347 of 4–8 hours; OR = 3.337 of above 8 hours) than the rural elderly (OR = 1.630 of 4–8 hours; OR = 2.293 of above 8 hours). Smoking and social activity were significant only in the urban elderly, while region and assets were significant only in the rural elderly. Drinking (11.45%), region (−33.92%), and assets (73.50%) were the main factors contributing to the urban–rural health disparities. Conclusions: This is the first comparative study examining SAH disparity, focusing on the elderly aged 60 and above in China. From the perspective of drinking, region, and assets, our study highlighted substantial urban–rural health disparities, and provided evidence for policy making on narrowing the health gap between urban and rural areas in China.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (15) ◽  
pp. 8411
Dimitra-Lida Rammou ◽  
Dimitris Kavroudakis ◽  
Dionisios Youlatos

The European ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus) is an endangered species, endemic to Central and Southeastern Europe, inhabiting burrow colonies in grassland and agricultural ecosystems. In recent years, agricultural land-use changes and increased urbanization have largely contributed to a severe population decline across its range, particularly in its southernmost edge. Assessing the population and habitat status of this species is essential for prioritizing appropriate conservation actions. The present study aims to track population size changes and identify habitat characteristics of the species in Greece via a literature search, questionnaires, and fieldwork for assessing trends in population size as well as spatial K-means analysis for estimating its relation to specific habitat attributes. We found that both distribution size (grid number) and colony numbers of the species decreased in the last decades (by 62.4% and 74.6%, respectively). The remaining colonies are isolated and characterized by low density (mean = 7.4 ± 8.6 ind/ha) and low number of animals (mean = 13 ± 16 individuals). Most of the colonies are situated in lowlands and did not relate to specific habitat attributes. Habitat aspect and system productivity (NDVI) were the main factors contributing mostly to the clustering of the existing colonies. These results demonstrate that the species is confined to small, isolated anthropogenic habitats. Specific conservation actions such as population reinforcement, habitat improvement, and specific common agricultural policy measures could effectively improve agroecological zones that are suitable for the maintenance and protection of existing and potential habitats for populations of the species.

2021 ◽  
Janique Oudbier ◽  
Gerard Spaai ◽  
Karline Timmermans ◽  
Tobias Boerboom

Abstract Background. In a flipped classroom, students acquire knowledge before class and deepen and apply this knowledge during class. This way, lower-order learning goals are achieved before class and higher-order skills are reached during class. This study aims to provide an overview of the factors that contribute to the effectiveness of the flipped classroom and how these factors can be stimulated. The effectiveness of the flipped classroom is conceptualized in this study as learning achievement, the achievement of higher learning goals, and student perceptions. Methods. A state-of-the-art review was conducted. The databases MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were consulted. The timeframe is 2016 till 2020. The studies were qualitatively analyzed according to the grounded theory method. Results. After screening the studies based on the inclusion-and exclusion criteria, 60 studies were included in this review. The qualitative analysis of these studies revealed six main factors that affect the effectiveness of the flipped classroom: student characteristics, teacher characteristics, implementation, task characteristics, out-of-class activities, and in-class activities. Mediating factors are, amongst other factors, the learner’s level of self-regulated learning, teacher’s role and motivation, assessment approach, and guidance during self-study. These factors can be positively stimulated by structuring the learning process and focusing the teacher training on competencies and learning-and teaching approaches that are essential for the flipped classroom. Conclusion. This paper provides insight into the factors that contribute to the effectiveness of the flipped classroom and how these factors could be stimulated. In order to stimulate the effectiveness of the flipped classroom, the positively and negatively affecting factors and mediating factors should be taken into account in the design of the flipped classroom. The interventions mentioned in this paper could also be used to enhance the effectiveness.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (3) ◽  
pp. 45-55
Miguel Varela ◽  
Paula Lopes ◽  
Rita Mendes

This paper discusses the trade of counterfeit luxury brands, which has grown at an alarming rate and is becoming a pertinent topic. The objective of this study is to specify the factors that influence purchase intention of counterfeit products. A questionnaire was applied to a group of Portuguese consumers, wherein 43% male and 57% female, with an average age of 32.59 years (SD = 9.78). The middle class registered the highest number of responses (86%), followed by the upper class (11%). Most respondents had higher education (76%). This group agreed to declare that they purchase counterfeit luxury products. Qualtrics software was used to validate one hundred responses. Data analysis was performed using SPSS.The results show that the three most popular counterfeit products are bags, clothes, and watches; the three brands that are most easily for sale are Louis Vuitton, Ray-Ban, and Nike; the main motivation associated with counterfeit goods is lower price (44%). The main sources are street vendors and online shopping. The intention to re-purchase a counterfeit product obtained low median results.The most desired counterfeit products are bags and clothes that are sold by street vendors (28%) or in the Internet (26%). The main factors that lead to the acquisition of counterfeit products are lower prices (44%) and product design (11%). 130 consumers declared the highest price satisfaction than a personal satisfaction from the purchase of counterfeit products. Portuguese consumers are also aware of ethical issues and agree with the enforcement of severe measures.

Hussein Al-Yaseen

Abstract. Academic publishing appears to be the most important key of the academic functions (academic research, excellence in teaching and learning and community services). Selecting the right journal to publish research results is a challenge to academics. Yet, there is inadequate knowledge about a model specifically directed at the topic of the journal selection process with a mathematical certainty. The objectives of this research are: to identify the main factors that an author or researchers consider when selecting an academic journal for submitting a manuscript, and, to develop a mathematical algorithm of journal selection that provide the best journal choice with a mathematical certainty based on difficulty of each factor. Quantitative research through questionnaires has been applied as an appropriate instrument base to address the researcher’s identification of the factors that should be considered when selecting a journal for submission a manuscript. Questionnaire developed and emailed to academics in 31 public and private universities in the developing countries. Academics in the sample reported that the most important publication difficulty factors were publishing in reputable journals that are indexed and abstracted in well-known databases, and publishing in a journal that has an impact factor. However, the most least publication difficulty factors were found to be: number of issues per year of the journal and if the journal is an open access or with subscription. The proposed mathematical algorithm (equation) and a graphical model of journal’s publication difficulty factors were developed and tested on a sample of journals.

2021 ◽  
Sharon Min Hui Chan ◽  
Norul Hidayah Mamat ◽  
Vishna Devi Nadarajah

Abstract Background Language proficiency is crucial for doctors as they communicate with patients, peers and other healthcare professionals. Although proficiency in English is part of admission requirements, there is a gap of knowledge on medical students’ perception of factors enhancing English language (EL) skills during training in international medical programmes (IMP). The gap prevents educators and policy makers from helping students who struggle with communication skills during medical training. This study therefore explores factors that enable enhancement of English language skills from medical students’ perspectives Methods Six focus group interviews with 24 medical students of an IMP were conducted. Data were analysed using Braun and Clarke’s framework of thematic analysis. Results Results established three main factors enhancing EL skills namely use of EL in medical training and practice, influence of university culture in EL mastery and individual EL proficiency with eight themes demonstrating the factors as perceived by medical students Conclusions Findings of this study informs how students perceived enhancement of EL skills as a professional and social requirement during medical training and for future practice. It also informs that setting English language admission pre requisites needs to be complemented with opportunities to practice context specific communication skills. Thus, international medical programmes should embed diverse and inclusive strategies to support and develop medical students’ English language skills.

2021 ◽  
Liliana Margareta Ciornei ◽  

Abstract BackgroundThe success of an embryo transfer protocol in sheep depends on many factors, but the choice of drugs for the desired superovulation as well as the conception rate are most essential. Reproductive activity in sheep is characterized by a seasonality influenced by several factors such as photoperiod, latitude, temperature, nutrition and breed. Reproductive seasonality and nutritional condition are the main factors that influence embryo production in sheep. In sheep, some anatomical peculiarities limit the application of traditional reproductive biotechnologies used in cattle. MethodsIn vivo embryo production is often referred to as “multiple ovulation and embryo transfer” and involves ovarian superstimulation of the donor female, insemination or mating, uterine flushing for embryo recovery, and either cryopreservation or transfer of collected embryos to recipients. A total number of 60 sheep and 3 rams were included in this study, divided into 2 groups (receptors/donors). Donor Suffolk sheep were treated for superovulation using the P4‐PGF‐FSH protocol while the cross-bred recipients’ group was synchronized with P4-PGF-PMSG. ResultsOn the first day after superovulation, all ovaries had more than 5 dominant follicles, while corpora lutea were later observed in 83.3% sheep. The recovery rate was 83.3% while 72,9% embryos were transferable. Embryos were transferred directly into recipients. Fertility after 30 days was 68.57%, lambing rate was 91.6%, and CR 62.85%. This study showed that veterinary drugs (P4, FSH, LH, PMSG, PGF) used for superovulation were capable to induce estrus and synchronize ovulation in sheep, are topical and in increasing use worldwide. ConclusionsThe aim of this study was to conclude on the effectiveness of a wider on farm in vivo embryo transfer development program in Suffolk sheep, using several veterinary hormones. The application of a multiple ovulation embryo transfer (MOET) protocol has a positive effect in the production of in vivo derived embryos in Suffolk sheep and can guarantee the success of embryo transfer activity to ewes with lower genetic merit. Our research aimed at representing a model for sheep farms for a rapid improvement of productive traits.

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