Closed Space
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2021 ◽  
pp. 944-951
Somporn Chantra ◽  
Pareena Chaitanuwong ◽  
Kasem Seresirikachorm ◽  
Mitchell Brinks ◽  
Onsiri Serirat ◽  

The purpose is to report ocular surface erosion of health personnel who were exposed to evaporated CoronaVac during a vaccination campaign. A campaign for CoronaVac vaccination was conducted in a closed space of 11.04 × 5.96 m, partially divided into 6 rooms with interconnected area among the rooms. A total of 20 health personnel worked in the vaccination rooms. On the third day of campaign, a vial, containing a single dose of 0.5 mL, of the vaccine was dropped accidentally onto the floor and broken by an administering nurse. A total of 15 personnel had symptoms and signs of ocular surface erosion at the average time from the accident to the onset of 10.2 ± 7.1 h; 4 personnel also had skin rash. These personnel included all 13 persons who already worked in the rooms when the accident occurred and continued for additional 4–6 h and 2 personnel who presented in the rooms 1–2 h after the accident and stayed for 2–3 h. Proximity and timing suggest CoronaVac correlation with the ocular and skin reactions. Cautions should be taken to avoid broken vials, spills, and aerosolization of CoronaVac during the vaccination.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Eric-Moîse BakwoFils ◽  
Manga Aaron Mongombe ◽  
Dongmo Ervis Manfothang ◽  
Aicha Gomeh-Djame ◽  
Jean Michel Takuo ◽  

Anthropogenic activities continue to degrade natural montane ecosystems globally. Bats communities are altered by these changes. We analyzed how bats are affected by human-induced habitat changes by comparing the bat species diversity and functional diversity in undisturbed forest habitats and disturbed forest habitats of the Afromontane biome of Cameroon. We recorded 244 individuals from 13 species in the undisturbed forest, while 233 individuals from 16 species were recorded in the disturbed forest. Bat diversity was higher in disturbed habitats (D = 0.84) than undisturbed habitats (D = 0.67). Jackknife 1 species richness estimator suggests 21.53 species for the disturbed forest and 19.30 in the undisturbed forest. Closed-space forager insectivorous bats made up nearly half of the species in the undisturbed forest, but this dropped to 25% in the disturbed forest, meanwhile, edge-space foragers increased in the disturbed forest. Bat community analyses by ordination revealed a distinct bat community composition between the two forest types, demonstrated as a significant difference in diversity between the two forest types. The distribution of Rousettus aegyptiacus, Myonycteris angolensis, Hipposideros cf. ruber, and Micropteropus pusillus contribute the most to the difference in bat community composition between the two forest types. Edge and open-space species were likely to benefit from additional resources provided by the disturbed area, by expanding their range and distribution. However, this may not compensate for the decline in the population of forest species caused by the loss of pristine forests, thus measures to conserve montane forest remnants should be of utmost significance.

Multilingua ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Åsa Wedin

Abstract This article investigates to what extent spaces created in the language introduction programme (LIP) in Upper Secondary School in Sweden close or open up for students’ varied linguistic resources, to create an understanding of the implementational spaces of the educational environments that the school represents, and of the ideological underpinnings that these imply. In the analysis, schoolscaping is used based on displayed language on the school premises in combination with language practices in classrooms. The material analyzed consists of photographs, both from classrooms and shared spaces, together with field notes from observations. The analysis made conflicting ideologies visible. Although students were invited to use their languages in classrooms, these were rarely made visible in written form, which is remarkable as written language is given great value in school. The relative invisibility of the LIP students’ languages in the schoolscape, except for in their own classrooms, together with the physical separation from other students at the school, paints a picture of expectations of assimilation and of a monolingual ideology, where the goal is that students become Swedish-speaking. Thus, the conclusion is that there are implementational spaces in the partly closed space that constructs LIP, while ideological spaces are rather closed.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (21) ◽  
pp. 7201
Xiaodong Ji ◽  
Minjun Zhang ◽  
Yuanyuan Qu ◽  
Hai Jiang ◽  
Miao Wu

The tunneling work belongs to the group operation of semi-closed space, and the work is difficult with a high risk coefficient. It is an urgent requirement of coal mining to achieve unmanned and intelligent tunneling work. The path rectification planning of roadheaders is a necessary step before roadway cutting. In the traditional dynamic modeling analysis of roadhead tracks, problems such as compaction resistance, bulldozing resistance, steering resistance, tunnel dip angle, ditching, and obstacle-crossing capacity are not considered. In order to approximate the kinematic and dynamic parameters of a roadheader’s deviation correction under actual working conditions, this paper establishes kinematic and dynamic models of a roadheader’s path rectification at low speeds and under complex working conditions, and calculates the obstacle-crossing ability of roadheaders in the course of path rectification by modes based on roadway conditions, crawler resistance, and driving performance of the roadheader. Field experiments were carried out to verify the effectiveness of the dynamic model. The dynamic roadheader model was used in combination with actual working conditions of roadways in order to establish a roadway grid model. The grid model was simplified using rectifying influence degree and distance cost. The roadheader dynamic model and grid model were then used to propose a path rectification planning and tracking algorithm based on particle swarm optimization of the actual roadway conditions and roadheader driving performance. Finally, the effectiveness and superiority of the algorithm were verified using MATLAB simulation. The algorithm can provide strong technical guarantee for the intelligence of roadheader and unmanned mining. The results presented here can provide theoretical and technical support for the structural optimization and intelligent travel control of roadheaders.

2021 ◽  
Dongkyu Park ◽  
Dongkyoung Lee

Abstract In order to overcome the energy density limitations of lithium-ion batteries consisting of graphite anodes, studies on lithium metal batteries (LMBs) have been actively conducted. However, most LMBs related studies focus on suppressing the growth of unpredictable dendrites. Research for production processes has been rarely conducted. In the paper, laser processing is introduced to improve the drawback of conventional processing for Li metal. Moreover, a low humidity maintenance chamber is manufactured to prevent oxidation of Li metal during laser processing because Li metal easily reacts with moisture. The chamber has a closed space that does not allow outside air to enter, and a glass that allows the laser beam to pass through is installed at the upper part. In addition, silica gel is installed to maintain low relative humidity. The dew point inside the chamber drops to -17.4 ℃ in 1 hour. This result implies that the chamber can prevent Li metal oxidation. Next, we analyze the effect of transparent plate glass on laser beam with Gaussian distribution. Finally, it is confirmed through experiments that lithium metal is not contaminated by moisture during laser processing using a manufactured chamber.

Burns ◽  
2021 ◽  
Kafi N. Sanders ◽  
Jyoti Aggarwal ◽  
Jennifer M. Stephens ◽  
Steven N. Michalopoulos ◽  
Donna Dalton ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (67) ◽  
pp. 1166-1170
Mai ISOMI ◽  
Hideki SAKAI ◽  
Hiroyuki IYOTA

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 193
Mingyu Jiao ◽  
Haoran Zhu ◽  
Jinglong Huang ◽  
Xin Zhang

Regarding the problem of hydrogen diffusion of the fuel cell vehicle (HFCV) when its hydrogen supply system leaks, this research uses the FLUENT software to simulate numerical values in the process of hydrogen leakage diffusion in both open space and closed space. This paper analyzed the distribution range and concentration distribution characteristics of hydrogen in these two different spaces. Besides, this paper also took a survey about the effects of leakage rate, wind speed, wind direction in open space and the role the air vents play on hydrogen safety in closed space, which provides a reference for the hydrogen safety of HFCV. In conclusion, the experiment result showed that: In open space, hydrogen leakage rate has a great influence on its diffusion. When the leakage rate doubles, the hydrogen leakage range will expand about 1.5 times simultaneously. The hydrogen diffusion range is the smallest when the wind blows at 90 degrees, which is more conducive to hydrogen diffusion. However, when the wind direction is against the direction of the leakage of hydrogen, the range of hydrogen distribution is maximal. Under this condition, the risk of hydrogen leakage is highest. In an enclosed space, when the vent is set closest to the leakage position, the volume fraction of hydrogen at each time is smaller than that at other positions, so it is more beneficial to safety.

S. A. Maryashev ◽  
R. E. Ishkinin ◽  
D. I. Pitskhelauri ◽  
CE. G. Chmutin

Resection of lateral ventricular trigone tumor can lead the development of specific complication like a trapped temporal horn. Secretion of cerebrospinal fluid from the choroid plexus in closed space leads to progressive enlargement of the temporal horn. The enlargement of the temporal horn leads to lateral transtentorial herniation with brain steam compression, which manifested by disorders of consciousness, hemiparesis, memory impairment and loss of visual fields. The proposed stenting technique allows to prevent the development of extended temporal horn and excludes the requirement its treatment in the long-term period. Over the past year, intraoperative stenting have been performed in five cases. In the long-term period none of the patients have had trapped temporal horn. There was no case of stent dysfunction.The article presents a clinical case of ventricular stenting following resection of lateral ventricular trigone tumor.

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