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2022 ◽  
Vol 147 ◽  
pp. 112619
Keizo Fukushima ◽  
Azusa Futatsugi ◽  
Maiko Maekawa ◽  
Saya Naito ◽  
Akira Okada ◽  

Cureus ◽  
2022 ◽  
Max Jiganti ◽  
Olivia Pipitone ◽  
Justin Than ◽  
Richard Stanley ◽  
Angela Passanise ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 28
Hélène Deflers ◽  
Frédéric Gandar ◽  
Géraldine Bolen ◽  
Johann Detilleux ◽  
Charlotte Sandersen ◽  

The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of single doses of butorphanol, morphine, and tramadol on gastrointestinal motility in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) using non-invasive imaging methods, such as radiographic barium follow through and ultrasonographic contraction counts. Time-lapse radiographic and ultrasound examinations were performed before and after a single intramuscular dose of 5 mg kg−1 butorphanol, 10 mg kg−1 morphine, or 10 mg kg−1 tramadol. Pyloric and duodenal contraction counts by ultrasonography and radiographic repletion scores for the stomach and caecum were analysed using a mixed linear model. No significant effect was noted on ultrasound examinations of pyloric and duodenal contractions after administration of an opioid treatment. Morphine had a significant effect on the stomach and the caecum repletion scores, whereas butorphanol had a significant effect only on the caecum repletion score. Tramadol had no significant effect on the stomach or caecum repletion scores. The present findings suggest that a single dose of 5 mg kg−1 butorphanol or 10 mg kg−1 morphine temporarily slows gastrointestinal transit in healthy rabbits, preventing physiological progression of the alimentary bolus without the induction of ileus. In contrast, a single dose of 10 mg kg−1 tramadol has no such effects.

2022 ◽  
Kirsten E Lyke ◽  
Robert L Atmar ◽  
Clara P. Dominguez Islas ◽  
Christine M. Posavad ◽  
Daniel Szydlo ◽  

As part of an ongoing study assessing homologous and heterologous booster vaccines, following primary EUA series, we assessed neutralization of D614G and Omicron variants prior to and 28 days after boost. Subset analysis was done in six combinations (N = 10/group): four homologous primary-booster combinations included mRNA-1273 two-dose priming followed by boosting with 100-μg or 50-μg mRNA-1273, Ad26.COV2.S single-dose priming followed by Ad26.COV2.S booster and BNT162b2 two-dose priming followed by BNT162b2 boosting; and two heterologous primary-booster combinations: BNT162b2 followed by Ad26.COV2.S and Ad26.COV2.S followed by BNT162b2. Neutralizing antibody (Nab) titers to D614G on the day of boost (baseline) were detected in 85-100% of participants, with geometric mean titers (GMT) of 71-343 in participants who received an mRNA vaccine series versus GMTs of 35-41 in participants primed with Ad26.OV2.S. Baseline NAb titers to Omicron were detected in 50-90% of participants who received an mRNA vaccine series (GMT range 12.8-24.5) versus 20-25% among participants primed with Ad26.COV2.S. The booster dose increased the neutralizing GMT in most combinations to above 1000 for D614G and above 250 for Omicron by Day 29. Homologous prime-boost Ad26.COV2.S had the lowest NAb on Day 29 (D614G GMT 128 and Omicron GMT 45). Results were similar between age groups. Most homologous and heterologous boost combinations examined will increase humoral immunity to the Omicron variant.

2022 ◽  
Vol In Press (In Press) ◽  
Sajad Moradi ◽  
Dinyar Khazaeli ◽  
Mohammadreza Dadfar ◽  
Nima Bakhtiari

Background: We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 50-unit dose against 100-unit dose of intracavernosal injection (ICI) of AbobotulinumtoxinA (BTX-A) (Masport®) in patients with vascular erectile dysfunction (ED) resistant to first-line therapies, including phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5I). Methods: In this double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT), 40 patients with ED resistant to PDE5I were randomly divided into two groups: ICI of a single dose of Masport® 50 units and single dose of 100 units. Peak systolic velocity (PSV) confirmed arterial insufficiency vascular disorder. For all patients, IIEF (International Index of Erectile Function), SHIM (Sexual Health Inventory for Men), and EHS (Erection Hardness Score) questionnaires were completed. Six weeks after the treatment, the subjects were re-examined. Results: Our results showed an acceptable clinical efficacy and safety of ICI of Masport® six weeks after injection. No systemic complications in patients were seen. Three patients complained of brief penile pain shortly after injection, but there were no other local complications. The increase in mean PSV in the 100-unit group due to treatment was significant (P-value < 0.0001). Also, there was a significant difference between the two groups of 50- and 100-unit (P-value < 0.0001). In addition, the increase in mean IIEF-EF, SHIM score, and EHS due to treatment was significant between the two groups. For the 100-unit group, P-value < 0.0001 and the difference between the two groups was also significant (P-value < 0.0001), which indicated a better response to treatment in the 100-unit group. The mean increase of IIEF score (EF domain) was 4.3 (mean IIEF: 9.4 and 13.7 after and before, respectively) in the 100-unit group and (mean IIEF: 8.1 and 9.1 after and before, respectively) in the 50-unit group. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that ICI of AbobotulinumtoxinA, especially at a dose of 100 units, in patients with refractory vasculogenic ED is safe and effective in improving sexual function and ultrasound indices.

2022 ◽  
Rob Krause ◽  
Thandeka Moyo-Gwete ◽  
Simone Richardson ◽  
Zanele Makhado ◽  
Nelia Manamela ◽  

Abstract Neutralizing antibodies strongly correlate with protection for COVID-19 vaccines, but the corresponding memory B cells that form to protect against future infection are relatively understudied. Here we examine the effect of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection on the magnitude and phenotype of the B cell response to single dose Johnson and Johnson (Ad26.COV2.S) vaccination in South African health care workers. SARS-CoV-2 specific memory responses expand in response to Ad26.COV2.S and are maintained for the study duration (84 days) in all individuals. However, prior infection is associated with a greater frequency of these cells, a more prominent germinal center (GC) response, and increased class switched memory (CSM). These B cell features correlated with both neutralization and antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity, and with the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 specific circulating T follicular helper cells (cTfh). In addition, the SARS-CoV-2 specific CD8+ T cell response correlated with increased memory B cell lung-homing, which was sustained in the infected group. Finally, although vaccination achieved equivalent B cell activation regardless of infection history, it was negatively impacted by age. These data show that phenotyping the B cell response to vaccination can provide mechanistic insight into the impact of prior infection on GC homing, CSM, cTfh, and neutralization activity. These data can provide early signals and mechanistic understanding to inform studies of vaccine boosting, durability, and co-morbidities.

2022 ◽  
Yoshihiro Kondo ◽  
Michihiro Kunishige ◽  
Naoki Kadota ◽  
Yoshio Okano ◽  
Hisanori Machida ◽  

2022 ◽  
Tesfaye Gelanew ◽  
Andargachew Mulu ◽  
Markos Abebe ◽  
Timothy A Bates ◽  
Liya Wassie ◽  

Abstract Background A single dose COVID-19 vaccines, mostly mRNA-based vaccines, are shown to induce robust antibody responses in individuals who were previously infected with SARS-CoV-2, suggesting the sufficiency of a single dose to those individuals. However, these important data are limited to developed nations and lacking in resource-limited countries, like Ethiopia. Methods We compared receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific IgG antibodies in 40 SARS-CoV-2 naïve participants and 25 participants previously infected with SARS-CoV-2, who received two doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. We measured the antibody response in post-vaccination blood samples from both groups of participants collected at four different post-vaccination time points: 8- and 12-weeks after each dose of the vaccine administration using an in-house developed ELISA. Results We observed a high level of anti-RBD IgG antibodies titers 8-weeks after a single dose administration (16/27; 59.3%) among naïve participants, albeit dropped significantly (p<0.05) two months later, suggesting the protective immunity elicited by the first dose ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine will likely last for a minimum of three months. However, as expected, a significant (p<0.001) increase in the level of anti-RBD IgG antibodies titers was observed after the second dose administration in all naïve participants. By contrast, the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine-induced anti-RBD IgG antibody titers produced by the P.I participants at 8- to 12-weeks post-single dose vaccination were found to be similar to the antibody titers seen after a two-dose vaccination course among infection- naïve participants and showed no significant (p>0.05) increment following the second dose administration. Conclusion Taken together, our findings show that a single ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 dose in previously SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals elicits similar antibody responses to that of double dose vaccinated naïve individuals. Age and sex were not associated with the level of vaccine-elicited immune responses in both individuals with and without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further studies are required to assess the need for a booster dose to extend the duration and amplitude of the specific protective immune response in Ethiopia settings, especially following the Omicron pandemic.

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