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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 073-081
Author(s):  
Valérie Lalao Razafindratovo ◽  
Haingo Volana Prisca Raveloarimalala

In Madagascar, maize constitutes the third staple food. Traditionally, cereal gruel (made up from rice or maize flour) is the supplementary food for Malagasy children. This work involved a comparative study of the hydrothermal behavior of four maize flours sold on the market and their starches, in order to identify their best use in food systems, especially in infant nutrition. Studies of functional properties such as swelling power, solubility and viscosity were undertaken. At 90°C, the swelling power value range was between 4.81 (g/g) and 8.2 (g/g) for flours and between 6.72 (g/g) and 9.1 (g/g) for their starches. While solubility was 11.8 (%) and 16.4 (%) for flours at the same temperature (90°C), for starches, it was between 12.6 (%) and 22.8 (%). The viscosity peaked at 90°C, ranging from 648 (cP) to 2728 (cP) for flours and from 220 (cP) to 2268 (cP) for starches.


Atmosphere ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (11) ◽  
pp. 1382
Author(s):  
Katarzyna Kozicka ◽  
Dariusz Gozdowski ◽  
Elżbieta Wójcik-Gront

Irrigated and flooded rice is associated with methane (CH4) emissions. CH4 is one of the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHG) in the atmosphere. Nowadays, mapping CH4 content at a global scale is possible using satellite sensors. Sample of such a sensor is TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) placed on the Sentinel-5 Precursor (Sentinel-5P) satellite board. In this study, the evaluation of spatial-temporal changes in CH4 content in the atmosphere for selected countries and regions with high CH4 emissions from rice cultivation in 2019–2021 was performed. Visual evaluation of the spatial variability on CH4 content for the total study period indicates higher CH4 content for almost all areas with high rice concentration. This was confirmed by positive correlations between CH4 content in the atmosphere and estimated GHG emissions from croplands analyzed separately for each studied country/region. In addition, seasonal changes in CH4 content in the atmosphere were observed. The lowest CH4 content was observed at the beginning of the year (for the first quarter of the year) and the highest for the third quarter of the year. Moreover, a long-term increase in CH4 was noticed. Regression analysis revealed that the mean increase in CH4 content in most of the studied regions/countries was about 15 ppb per year. CH4 content evaluated with the use of satellite data from Sentinel-5P is a reliable data source and can be used for the analysis of temporal changes at various spatial scales, including regions and countries.


2021 ◽  
pp. 088506662110471
Author(s):  
Zia Hashim ◽  
Zafar Neyaz ◽  
Rungmei S.K. Marak ◽  
Alok Nath ◽  
Soniya Nityanand ◽  
...  

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is a new disease characterized by secondary Aspergillus mold infection in patients with COVID-19. It primarily affects patients with COVID-19 in critical state with acute respiratory distress syndrome, requiring intensive care and mechanical ventilation. CAPA has a higher mortality rate than COVID-19, posing a serious threat to affected individuals. COVID-19 is a potential risk factor for CAPA and has already claimed a massive death toll worldwide since its outbreak in December 2019. Its second wave is currently progressing towards a peak, while the third wave of this devastating pandemic is expected to follow. Therefore, an early and accurate diagnosis of CAPA is of utmost importance for effective clinical management of this highly fatal disease. However, there are no uniform criteria for diagnosing CAPA in an intensive care setting. Therefore, based on a review of existing information and our own experience, we have proposed new criteria in the form of practice guidelines for diagnosing CAPA, focusing on the points relevant for intensivists and pulmonary and critical care physicians. The main highlights of these guidelines include the role of CAPA-appropriate test specimens, clinical risk factors, computed tomography of the thorax, and non-culture-based indirect and direct mycological evidence for diagnosing CAPA in the intensive care unit. These guidelines classify the diagnosis of CAPA into suspected, possible, and probable categories to facilitate clinical decision-making. We hope that these practice guidelines will adequately address the diagnostic challenges of CAPA, providing an easy-to-use and practical algorithm to clinicians for rapid diagnosis and clinical management of the disease.


Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 2115
Author(s):  
Iwona Morkunas ◽  
Mehmet Zafer Doğu ◽  
Agnieszka Woźniak ◽  
Waldemar Bednarski ◽  
Jacek Kęsy ◽  
...  

The main aim of this study was to investigate metabolic responses of fruits, leaves, and shoots of pistachio trees (Pistacia vera L. cv. Kirmizi) during their development. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed significant increase in generation of semiquinone radicals in fruits and leaves of pistachio, while the flower cluster thinning application was conducted in relation to the control; especially at the second term of the plant material collection. Moreover, flower abscission caused an increase in the level of phytohormones such as indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid in fruits at the first term of fruits sampling. In turn, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed differences both in the profile as well as the contents of soluble sugars detected in pistachio organs. The highest total sugar content was found in fruits of pistachio where the flower cluster thinning application was made early. Total sugar levels were higher also in leaves and shoots of the above-mentioned pistachio plants in relation to the control until the third sampling time. The importance of high levels of fructose in the fruits following the flower abscission was observed. Additionally, analyses of mineral elements in organs showed that copper and phosphorus contents in fruits were higher after the flower abscission in relation to the control. To conclude, our findings signal on contribution of semiquinone radicals, paramagnetic manganese ions, phytohormones, nutrients, and sugars in pistachio organs development on the background of the flower cluster thinning which was applied before fructification.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Genevieve N. Healy ◽  
Elisabeth A. H. Winkler ◽  
Ana D. Goode

Abstract Background The web-based BeUpstanding program supports desk workers to sit less and move more. Successfully translated from a research-delivered intervention, BeUpstanding has gone through iterative development and evaluation phases in preparation for wide-scale implementation. In the third planned “early-adopters” phase (01/09/2017–11/06/2019), the program was made freely-available online. An integrated delivery and evaluation platform was also developed to enable workplace champions to run and evaluate the intervention within their work team independent of researcher support. Using the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) framework, this study reports on the extent to which the program and processes were “fit-for-purpose” for a national implementation trial across the indicators of uptake (reach and adoption), implementation and engagement, and effectiveness for behaviour change. Methods Data were collected via the online surveys embedded in the program and through program access analytics. Descriptive data (with linearized variance for the clustered staff-level data) and results from mixed models (repeated data and clustering for pre-post changes) are reported. Results Despite purposeful limited promotion, uptake was good, with 182 Australian users initially registering (208 total) and 135 (from 113 organisations) then completing the sign-up process. Recruitment reached users across Australia and in 16 of 19 Australian industries. Implementation was inconsistent and limited, with signed-up users completing 0 to 14 of the program’s 14 steps and only 7 (5.2%) completing all seven core steps. Many champions (n = 69, 51.1%) had low engagement (1 day toolkit usage) and few (n = 30, 22%) were highly engaged (> 1 day toolkit usage and surveyed staff). Although only 18 users (7 organisations) performed the pre- and post-program staff evaluations (337 and 167 staff, respectively), pre-post changes showed the program effectively reduced workplace sitting by − 9.0% (95% CI -12.0, − 5.9%). Discussion The program had uptake across industries and across Australia, but implementation and engagement varied widely. Few workplaces completed the evaluation components. In those that did, the program was effective for the primary outcome (workplace sitting). Conducting a planned early adopters phase and a comprehensive evaluation according to RE-AIM helped highlight necessary program improvements to make it more suitable for wide-scale implementation and evaluation. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinic Trials Registry ACTRN12617000682347. Date registered: 12/05/2017.


2021 ◽  
pp. M58-2021-17
Author(s):  
David J. A. Evans ◽  
Ian S. Evans

AbstractFrom 1965-2000 glacial geomorphology became increasingly specialised and developed significantly due to technological improvements, particularly in remote sensing, surveying and field-based glaciological process studies. The better understanding of basal thermal regimes in ice sheets and glaciers led to the development of concepts such as spatial and temporal migration of ice divides in dynamic ice sheets that could overprint subglacial landform assemblages, debris entrainment processes related to polythermal glacier systems, and glacier and ice sheet beds composed of cold and warm based mosaics. Process observations at the ice-bed interface led to the discovery of the third glacier flow mechanism, substrate deformation, which provided the impetus to reconstruct the genesis of subglacial bedforms such as drumlins and to evaluate the origins and potential flow law for till. Numerical evaluations of glacial erosion led to a better understanding of abrasion and quarrying as well as the erection of genetic models and erosion rates for larger scale features such as U-shaped valleys and cirques. Linkages were made between debris transport pathways and moraine construction in supraglacial environments, with the role of glacier structure being linked to specific landforms, such as medial, lateral, hummocky and ice-cored moraines as well as rock glaciers. Our appreciation of the erosional and depositional impacts of glacifluvial systems was enhanced significantly with the advent of process observations on the hydrology of modern glaciers as well as the final vindication of J.H. Bretz and his proposed jökulhlaup origins of the Channelled Scablands and the Missoula Floods. In addition to the increasing numbers of studies at modern glacier snouts, the embracing of sedimentology by glacial geomorphologists was to result in significant developments in understanding the process-form regimes of subglacial, marginal and proglacial landforms, particularly the recognition of landform continua and hybrids. Advances resulting from this included the recognition of different modes of moraine and glacitectonic thrust mass development, lithofacies models of the varied glacifluvial depositional environments, and the initial expansion of the sediments and depo-centres of glacimarine settings, the latter being the result of glacial research taking to submersibles and ice-strengthened ships for the first time. A similarly new frontier was the expansion of research on the increasingly higher resolution images returning from Mars, where extraterrestrial glaciations were recognised based on comparisons with Earth analogues. Holistic appreciations of glaciation signatures using landform assemblages were developed, initially as process-form models and later as glacial landsystems, providing an ever expanding set of templates for reconstructing palaeoglaciology in the wide variety of topographic and environmental settings, which also acknowledge spatial and temporal change in glacier and ice sheet systems.


F1000Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 1072
Author(s):  
Camila Pasa ◽  
Ruberlei Godinho de Oliveira ◽  
Thiago da Rosa Lima ◽  
Michelle Jalousie Kommers ◽  
Karla Régia Ferreira Viana Figueiredo ◽  
...  

Background: The oral administration of L-arginine has been related to improved physical performance due to a likely reduction in muscle fatigue, resulting from the vasodilator effect of nitric oxide on skeletal muscle. However, there is no precise and quantitative analysis of the information in the literature. The main objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of L-arginine supplementation on physical performance in strength training with a systematic review and meta-analysis. We hypothesized that L-arginine supplementation would improve performance capacity and the effects involved in strength training. Methods: The study period was from 2010 to 2020. The inclusion process established articles with well-designed human experiments that included only L-arginine supplementation (without any additional compounds) testing the effects of L-arginine supplementation on sports performance related to strength training; identical experimental conditions in placebo or control group; and publications in the last ten years (until December 31, 2020). Three studies were included that compared L-arginine supplementation with placebo in anaerobic performance tests. Test analysis supplementation with other supplements was removed and there was no gender, age, and ethnicity level. Results: There was no significant heterogeneity (p>0.05) in the analysis of the three selected articles and the effects of L-arginine supplementation in muscular endurance; performance had a mean of 0.26 (95% CI = -0.129; 0.649; p = 0.190), peak torque with a mean of -0.002 (95% CI = -0.531; 0.527; p = 0. 99) of the third series of exercises and, furthermore, when comparing the integrated effect (resistance rate with the peak torque) there was no difference with a mean of 0.168 (95% CI = -0.145; 0.481; p = 0.292). Conclusions: Acute L-arginine supplementation provides no ergogenic effect on strength training performance.


2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Helmi Ben Rejeb ◽  
Benoit Roussel

PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to help in the establishment of the first fabrication laboratory (FabLab) in Tunisia. The FabLab movement offers many interesting opportunities through value creation, innovation, training and access to digital manufacturing technologies. A newly created FabLab should be well-positioned in terms of business model, purpose and management. The aim of this paper is to conduct a comparative analysis of FabLabs in developed countries (mainly in France and Luxembourg) and to provide recommendations on the possible development of a FabLab in Tunisia (FabLabENIT).Design/methodology/approachTwelve FabLabs were visited and experts from the makers movement were interviewed. Data from the visits and interviews were analysed using lexicometric tools. This methodology is based on three main steps: first, the identification and selection of panel of studied FabLabs interviews; second transcribing and coding for IRaMuTeQ software; and third, correspondence analysis.FindingsThe correspondence analysis determined five main factors of analysis that were interpreted using the most correlated words. The analysis of the correlation of the FabLabs and these five factors showed that FabLabENIT was strongly correlated with the third factor (interpreted as the organisation and structure factor). Recommendations for the purpose, local impact and methods were derived using the position of FabLabENIT in relation to the other factors.Practical implicationsThis study highlighted five main topics that characterise FabLabs in developing countries before and after their creation. A second practical contribution of this paper is that it provides a framework for FabLab managers and founders to anticipate possible trajectories of evolution for their organisations, especially in an emerging country. Another contribution, both practical and methodological, is the demonstration of the use of textual interview analysis tools (mainly correspondence analysis) to determine the main practices and characteristics of a creative organisation, such as a FabLab.Originality/valueOne original feature of this paper is the topic of the study, especially in the current context of the COVID-19 outbreak, in which the FabLab movement provided interesting solutions that were designed and manufactured using digital manufacturing technologies. A second originality resides in the use of lexicometric techniques to analyse the information that was discussed during the interviews.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hanne Gotaas Fredum ◽  
Felicitas Rost ◽  
Randi Ulberg ◽  
Nick Midgley ◽  
Agneta Thorén ◽  
...  

Research suggests that short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP) is an effective treatment for depression in adolescence, yet treatment dropout is a major concern and what leads to dropout is poorly understood. Whilst studies have begun to explore the role of patient and therapist variables, there is a dearth of research on the actual therapy process and investigation of the interaction between patient and therapist. This study aims to address this paucity through the utilisation of the Adolescent Psychotherapy Q-set (APQ) to examine the early treatment period. The sample includes 69 adolescents aged 16–18 years with major depressive disorder receiving STPP as part of the First Experimental Study of Transference Work–in Teenagers (FEST-IT) trial. Of these, 21 were identified as dropouts and were compared to completers on pre-treatment patient characteristics, symptomatology, functioning, and working alliance. APQ ratings available for an early session from 16 of these drop out cases were analysed to explore the patient-therapist interaction structure. Results from the Q-factor analysis revealed three distinct interaction structures that explained 54.3% of the total variance. The first described a process of mutual trust and collaboration, the second was characterised by patient resistance and emotional detachment, the third by a mismatch and incongruence between therapist and adolescent. Comparison between the three revealed interesting differences which taken together provide further evidence that the reasons why adolescents drop out of therapy vary and are multidimensional in nature.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Miao Huang ◽  
Jisheng Li ◽  
Xuejun Yu ◽  
Qian Xu ◽  
Xue Zhang ◽  
...  

BackgroundAlthough various third-line treatments of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) significantly improved the overall survival, the optimal regimen has not been determined by now. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of multiple third-line treatments of AGC via integrated analysis and network meta-analysis (NMA) to provide valuable evidence for the optimal third-line systemic therapy for AGC.MethodsBy searching the databases of PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from Jan 01, 2005 to Dec 31, 2020, we included phase II/III randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of the third-line treatments for AGC to perform NMA. The main outcomes for NMA were median overall survival (mOS), median progression-free survival (mPFS), disease control rate (DCR) and adverse events (AEs). We also included phase IB/II non-RCTs and II/III RCTs of the third-line immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for integrated analysis for pooled mOS (POS), pooled mPFS (PPFS) and other outcomes.ResultsEight phase II/III RCTs and 2 ICIs-related phase IB/II non-RCTs were included for analysis, involving 9 treatment regimens and 3012 AGC patients. In terms of mOS, apatinib (hazard ratio [HR] 0.61, 95% credible interval [CrI] 0.48-0.78) and nivolumab (HR 0.62, 95% CrI 0.51-0.76) were the most effective treatments compared with placebo. Apatinib also significantly improved mPFS versus placebo (HR 0.38, 95% CrI 0.29-0.49). Nivolumab ranked first among all regimens for 1-year OS rate and achieved the best OS in patients with HER-2 positive tumor, patients with gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer and patients without gastrectomy history. TAS-102 (OR 7.46, 95% CrI 4.61-12.51) was the most toxic treatment in terms of AEs of grade 3 and higher (≥3 AEs). Pembrolizumab was more likely to cause immune related adverse event. Finally, the POS, pooled 1-year OS rate, pooled ORR and PPFS of AGC patients treated with third-line ICIs were 5.1 months, 25%, 10% and 1.71 months respectively.ConclusionsApatinib and nivolumab are the most effective treatments for the third-line treatment of AGC in contrast to the third-line chemotherapy. For AGC patients with HER-2 positive tumor, patients with GEJ cancer and patients without gastrectomy history, ICIs could be the optimal third-line treatment choice.


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