institutional change
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2022 ◽  
Tiago Carvalho

Despite the historical and political similarities between Portugal and Spain, the contentious responses to austerity diverged in terms of number, rhythm and players. This book compares the contentious responses to austerity in Portugal and Spain during the Eurozone crisis and the Great Recession between 2008 and 2015. While in Spain a sustained wave of mobilisation lasted for three years, involving various players and leading to a transformation of the party system, in Portugal social movements were only able to mobilise in specific instances, trade unions dominated protest and, by the end of the cycle, institutional change was limited. Contesting Austerity shows that the different trajectories and outcomes in these two countries are connected to the nature and configurations of the players in the mobilisation process. While in Spain actors’ relative autonomy from one another led to deeper political transformation, in Portugal the dominance of the institutional actors limited the extent of that change.

2022 ◽  
pp. 107769902110665
Tae Ho Lee

Drawing on the theory of gradual institutional change, this study analyzed the post-Civil War college reform efforts in North Carolina, integrating power with public relations history. Reformers worked under harsh institutional circumstances where resident elites held high veto power, while reformers had a low level of discretion for interpreting college education. Notwithstanding, reformers adopted layering tactics, introducing new rules of education for all alongside existing ones of education as legacy, for gradual institutional change. Specifically, reformers maintained a calm and objective tone, focusing on the universal value of education, both publicly and through anonymous publications in hostile press venues.

10.1142/q0331 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Antoine Le Riche ◽  
Antoine Parent ◽  
Lei Zhang

2022 ◽  
pp. 76-89
Pedro dos Santos Portugal Júnior ◽  
Fabricio Pelloso Piurcosky ◽  
Rodrigo Franklin Frogeri ◽  
Luiz Carlos Vieira Guedes ◽  
Sema Ylmaz Yılmaz Genç

The present study addresses the issue of mineral waters in Brazil, its institutional problem, and the consequences and conflicts arising from its irrational exploitation. As a solution to these problems and conflicts, it is proposed to integrate these mineral waters and their different types in the management of water resources and the application of guiding economic and ecological principles as in the case of the conception of post-normal science and the precautionary principle. To meet the objective, the authors opted for an exploratory and bibliographical research regarding the adopted procedure. It is concluded that the implementation of an institutional change will allow a participative and polycentric management, mainly at the level of the hydrographic basin committees, which will contribute to the application of the two mentioned principles and a sustainable management of this resource. However, there is a need for improvements in the national water resources policy to more effectively cover groundwater in which mineral waters are embedded.

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