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Ramesh Kumar ◽  
R.S. Yadav ◽  
Amit Kumawat ◽  
Vinay Nangia ◽  
N.D. Yadava ◽  

Background: Freshwater in sufficient quantity and adequate quality is a prerequisite for human societies and natural ecosystems. To adequately feed 9.3 billion people in 2050, consumptive water use (i.e. transpired water) by all food and fodder crops needs to increase from its present estimated level of 7000 km3/year to 12,586 km3/year. However, fresh water resources are increasingly getting scarce because of increased competition among a multitude of users. Getting agriculture to perform with progressively smaller allocation of renewable water resources will remain a challenge on global scale. To meet the challenge there is an urgent need to improve the crop water productivity to ensure the sustainability of agriculture. Methods: An experiment was carried out at village Menawali, Hanumangarh, Rajasthan during both kharif and rabi seasons to assess productivity, economics, N-uptake and water use of different crops. An area of 187 ha comprising 25 farmers irrigated by common irrigation channels were selected to collect the information. The information required i.e. soil, crop management, growth, phonological, yields, water balance, N-uptake and water use efficiency of each crops were collected from 15 farmers. Bt-cotton and clusterbean of kharif and wheat and Indian mustard in rabi were prominent crops, cotton-wheat, cotton-mustard, clusterbean-wheat and clusterbean-mustard were major cropping sequences of the study region. Result: In kharif season, Bt-cotton gave higher economic yields than clusterbean and amongst rabi season crops, economic yields of wheat and mustard were 4255, 1778 kg/ha, respectively. The economic yield of cropping sequences varied from 3741-6514 kg/ha and were higher for cotton-wheat (6218 kg/ha), intermediate for clusterbean-wheat (5785 kg/ha) and lower for cotton-mustard (3741 kg/ha) and clusterbean-mustard (3308 kg/ha). The cotton-wheat (₹1181.2 mm) sequence had highest water use. Clusterbean-wheat cropping system recorded highest water productivity (16.5 kg/ha mm) followed by clusterbean-mustard (14.9 kg/ha mm). The clusterbean-mustard (₹456/ha mm) cropping sequence was most profitable and fetched highest net return followed by clusterbean-wheat (₹383/ha mm).

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Jianfeng Li ◽  
Jiawei Wang ◽  
Liangyan Yang ◽  
Huping Ye

AbstractSri Lanka is an important hub connecting Asia-Africa-Europe maritime routes. It receives abundant but uneven spatiotemporal distribution of rainfall and has evident seasonal water shortages. Monitoring water area changes in inland lakes and reservoirs plays an important role in guiding the development and utilisation of water resources. In this study, a rapid surface water extraction model based on the Google Earth Engine remote sensing cloud computing platform was constructed. By evaluating the optimal spectral water index method, the spatiotemporal variations of reservoirs and inland lakes in Sri Lanka were analysed. The results showed that Automated Water Extraction Index (AWEIsh) could accurately identify the water boundary with an overall accuracy of 99.14%, which was suitable for surface water extraction in Sri Lanka. The area of the Maduru Oya Reservoir showed an overall increasing trend based on small fluctuations from 1988 to 2018, and the monthly area of the reservoir fluctuated significantly in 2017. Thus, water resource management in the dry zone should focus more on seasonal regulation and control. From 1995 to 2015, the number and area of lakes and reservoirs in Sri Lanka increased to different degrees, mainly concentrated in arid provinces including Northern, North Central, and Western Provinces. Overall, the amount of surface water resources have increased.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 825
Hien Doan Thi ◽  
Frederic Andres ◽  
Long Tran Quoc ◽  
Hiro Emoto ◽  
Michiko Hayashi ◽  

Much of the earth’s surface is covered by water. As was pointed out in the 2020 edition of the World Water Development Report, climate change challenges the sustainability of global water resources, so it is important to monitor the quality of water to preserve sustainable water resources. Quality of water can be related to the structure of water crystal, the solid-state of water, so methods to understand water crystals can help to improve water quality. As a first step, a water crystal exploratory analysis has been initiated with the cooperation with the Emoto Peace Project (EPP). The 5K EPP dataset has been created as the first world-wide small dataset of water crystals. Our research focused on reducing the inherent limitations when fitting machine learning models to the 5K EPP dataset. One major result is the classification of water crystals and how to split our small dataset into several related groups. Using the 5K EPP dataset of human observations and past research on snow crystal classification, we created a simple set of visual labels to identify water crystal shapes, in 13 categories. A deep learning-based method has been used to automatically do the classification task with a subset of the label dataset. The classification achieved high accuracy when using a fine-tuning technique.

Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 135
Demetrios E. Tsesmelis ◽  
Christos A. Karavitis ◽  
Kleomenis Kalogeropoulos ◽  
Efthimios Zervas ◽  
Constantina G. Vasilakou ◽  

Natural resources degradation poses multiple challenges particularly to environmental and economic processes. It is usually difficult to identify the degree of degradation and the critical vulnerability values in the affected systems. Thus, among other tools, indices (composite indicators) may also describe these complex systems or phenomena. In this approach, the Water and Land Resources Degradation Index was applied to the fifth largest Mediterranean island, Crete, for the 1999–2014 period. The Water and Land Resources Degradation Index uses 11 water and soil resources related indicators: Aridity Index, Water Demand, Drought Impacts, Drought Resistance Water Resources Infrastructure, Land Use Intensity, Soil Parent Material, Plant Cover, Rainfall, Slope, and Soil Texture. The aim is to identify the sensitive areas to degradation due to anthropogenic interventions and natural processes, as well as their vulnerability status. The results for Crete Island indicate that prolonged water resources shortages due to low average precipitation values or high water demand (especially in the agricultural sector), may significantly affect Water and Land degradation processes. Hence, Water and Land Resources Degradation Index could serve as an extra tool to assist policymakers to improve their decisions to combat Natural Resources degradation.

2022 ◽  
Jiawei Zhou ◽  
Xiaohong Chen ◽  
Chuang Xu ◽  
Pan Wu

Abstract Socioeconomic drought is a phenomenon of water shortage caused by an imbalance between the supply and demand of water resources in natural and human socioeconomic systems. Occurrence of these droughts is closely related to sustainable socioeconomic development. However, compared with meteorological drought, hydrological drought and agricultural drought, socioeconomic drought has received relatively little attention. Therefore, this paper proposes a universal and relatively simple socioeconomic drought assessment index, the Standardized Supply and Demand Water Index (SSDWI). Taking the Jianjiang River Basin (JJRB) in Guangdong Province, China as an example, socioeconomic drought characteristics and trends during 1985-2019 were analyzed. The return period of different levels of drought were calculated using a copula function to estimate the risk of socioeconomic drought in the basin, and the relationship between socioeconomic, meteorological, and hydrological droughts and their potential drivers were discussed. The results showed that: (1) SSDWI was a better index for characterizing socioeconomic drought in the JJRB. 29 socioeconomic droughts occurred in the basin during the past 35 years, with an average duration of 6.16 months and an average severity of 5.82 per events. Socioeconomic droughts mainly occurred in autumn and winter, which also had more severe droughts than other seasons. (2) In the JJRB, the joint return periods of ‘∪’ and ‘∩’ for moderate drought, severe drought and extreme drought were 8.81a and 10.81a, 16.49a and 26.44a, and 41.68a and 91.13a, respectively; (3) Due to the increasing outflow from Gaozhou Reservoir, the risk of socioeconomic drought and hydrological drought in the JJRB has significantly declined since 2008. The reasonable operation of the reservoir has played an important role in alleviating the hydrological and socioeconomic drought in the basin.

2022 ◽  
Funda Dökmen ◽  

Abstract Every year, due to the salinity resulting from improper irrigation practices, almost 10 billion ha of agricultural lands across the world cannot be used. Among the main elements (cations) for salinity in regions with dry or semi-dry climate are potassium (K+), sodium (Na+), calcium (Ca+2) and magnesium (Mg+’2). Using proper irrigation methods as well as ensuring the quality of irrigation water are of great importance in terms of the salinity of agricultural soils. In this study, laboratory analyses of ground water resources for salinity parameters were conducted in the province of Yalova (Taşköprü, Çiftlikköy, and Altınova regions). In the explanation of the analysis results, variations and effects based on the level of salinity were taken into account and the role of small, meso and large scale factors were determined through the use of the wavelet model. The study results would be of use in the estimation of salinity contents of soils with respect to groundwater irrigation in agricultural areas.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Ramon Sala-Garrido ◽  
Manuel Mocholí-Arce ◽  
Maria Molinos-Senante ◽  
Alexandros Maziotis

AbstractThe path to a sustainable management of the urban water cycle requires the assessment of both operational and quality-adjusted efficiency in a unified manner. This can be done by the use of non-radial Data Envelopment Analysis models. This study used Range Adjusted Measure models to evaluate the operational, quality-adjusted, and operational & quality-adjusted efficiency (O&QAE) scores of the Chilean water industry including water leakage and unplanned interruptions as undesirable outputs. It was found that on average water utilities presented large O&QAE scores over time. The mean O&QAE score was 0.964 which means that water utilities could further reduce costs and undesirable outputs by 3.6% on average, while trying to expand the scale of operation. This finding suggests that excellent quality-adjusted efficiency at an efficient expenditure could be feasible. It was also evidenced that customer density, mixed water resources, and ownership influenced the O&QAE of Chilean water companies.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 220
Hongxue Zhang ◽  
Lianpeng Zhang ◽  
Jianxia Chang ◽  
Yunyun Li ◽  
Ruihao Long ◽  

Hydropower plant operation reorganizes the temporal and spatial distribution of water resources to promote the comprehensive utilization of water resources in the basin. However, a lot of uncertainties were brought to light concerning cascade hydropower plant operation with the introduction of the stochastic process of incoming runoff. Therefore, it is of guiding significance for the practice operation to investigate the stochastic operation of cascade hydropower plants while considering runoff uncertainty. The runoff simulation model was constructed by taking the cascade hydropower plants in the lower reaches of the Lancang River as the research object, and combining their data with the copula joint function and Gibbs method, and a Markov chain was adopted to construct the transfer matrix of runoff between adjacent months. With consideration for the uncertainty of inflow runoff, the stochastic optimal operation model of cascade hydropower plants was constructed and solved by the SDP algorithm. The results showed that 71.12% of the simulated monthly inflow of 5000 groups in the Nuozhadu hydropower plant drop into the reasonable range. Due to the insufficiency of measured runoff, there were too many 0 values in the derived transfer probability, but after the simulated runoff series were introduced, the results significantly improved. Taking the transfer probability matrix of simulated runoff as the input of the stochastic optimal operation model of the cascade hydropower plants, the operation diagram containing the future-period incoming water information was obtained, which could directly provide a reference for the optimal operation of the Nuozhadu hydropower plant. In addition, taking the incoming runoff process in a normal year as the standard, the annual mean power generation based on stochastic dynamic programming was similar to that based on dynamic programming (respectively 305.97 × 108kW⋅h and 306.91 × 108kW⋅h), which proved that the operation diagram constructed in this study was reasonable.

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