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Dan-Yu Lin ◽  
Yu Gu ◽  
Bradford Wheeler ◽  
Hayley Young ◽  
Shannon Holloway ◽  

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 171
Samantha Zurlinden ◽  
Stephany Spano ◽  
Emily Griffith ◽  
Sara Bennett

Excessive barking is a major source of noise pollution in dog kennels and negatively impacts welfare. Because resources are often limited, minimizing barking in the simplest and most easily implementable way is imperative. This pilot study implemented a Quiet Kennel Exercise (QKE) that utilized classical counterconditioning to change the dogs’ negative emotional state (which can lead to barking) to a more positive emotional state. Therefore, barking motivation is reduced, so barking should decrease. This study aims to show proof of concept that decreasing barking through classical counterconditioning is effective. It was conducted in one ward of day-time boarding kennels at North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine. Data was collected three times per day and included decibel readings, number of dogs present, and number of dogs barking during a 5-day initial baseline and 10-day intervention period. During baseline, people passing through the ward acted as they normally would. During intervention, passersby were asked to simply toss each dog a treat regardless of the dogs’ behaviors in the kennel. Descriptive results show improvement in maximum level of barking after QKE, fewer dogs barking over time, dogs barking less each time, and the most improvement noted in the afternoon.

2022 ◽  
pp. 107769902110665
Tae Ho Lee

Drawing on the theory of gradual institutional change, this study analyzed the post-Civil War college reform efforts in North Carolina, integrating power with public relations history. Reformers worked under harsh institutional circumstances where resident elites held high veto power, while reformers had a low level of discretion for interpreting college education. Notwithstanding, reformers adopted layering tactics, introducing new rules of education for all alongside existing ones of education as legacy, for gradual institutional change. Specifically, reformers maintained a calm and objective tone, focusing on the universal value of education, both publicly and through anonymous publications in hostile press venues.

Minerals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 77
Michael A. Wise ◽  
Russell S. Harmon ◽  
Adam Curry ◽  
Morgan Jennings ◽  
Zach Grimac ◽  

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), which has recently emerged as tool for geochemical analysis outside the traditional laboratory setting, is an ideal tool for Li exploration because it is the only technique that can measure Li in minerals, rocks, soils, and brines in-situ in the field. In addition to being used in many products essential to modern life, Li is a necessary element for a reduced carbon future and Li–Cs–Ta (LCT) granitic pegmatites are an important source of Li. Such pegmatites can have varying degrees of enrichment in Li, Rb, Cs, Be, Sn, Ga, Ta>Nb, B, P, and F. We focus here on the LCT pegmatites of the Carolina Tin-Spodumene Belt (CTSB) situated in the Kings Mountain Shear Zone, which extends from South Carolina into North Carolina. The CTSB hosts both barren and fertile pegmatites, with Li-enriched pegmatites containing spodumene, K-feldspar, albite, quartz, muscovite, and beryl. We illustrate how handheld LIBS analysis can be used for real-time Li analysis in the field at a historically important CTSB pegmatite locality in Gaston County, N.C. in four contexts: (i) elemental detection and identification; (ii) microchemical mapping; (iii) depth profiling; and (iv) elemental quantitative analysis. Finally, as an example of a practical exploration application, we describe how handheld LIBS can be used to measure K/Rb ratios and Li contents of muscovite and rapidly determine the degree of pegmatite fractionation. This study demonstrates the potential of handheld LIBS to drastically reduce the time necessary to acquire geochemical data relevant to acquiring compositional information for pegmatites during a Li pegmatite exploration program.

Castanea ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 86 (2) ◽  
Amy E. Boyd ◽  
Lane Doyle ◽  
Susan E. Lusardi ◽  
Gray Allen Goliszek

2022 ◽  
Maxwell Boyle ◽  
Elizabeth Rico

The Southeast Coast Network (SECN) conducts long-term terrestrial vegetation monitoring as part of the nationwide Inventory and Monitoring Program of the National Park Service (NPS). The vegetation community vital sign is one of the primary-tier resources identified by SECN park managers, and monitoring is currently conducted at 15 network parks (DeVivo et al. 2008). Monitoring plants and their associated communities over time allows for targeted understanding of ecosystems within the SECN geography, which provides managers information about the degree of change within their parks’ natural vegetation. The first year of conducting this monitoring effort at four SECN parks, including 52 plots on Cape Hatteras National Seashore (CAHA), was 2019. Twelve vegetation plots were established at Cape Hatteras NS in July and August. Data collected in each plot included species richness across multiple spatial scales, species-specific cover and constancy, species-specific woody stem seedling/sapling counts and adult tree (greater than 10 centimeters [3.9 inches {in}]) diameter at breast height (DBH), overall tree health, landform, soil, observed disturbance, and woody biomass (i.e., fuel load) estimates. This report summarizes the baseline (year 1) terrestrial vegetation data collected at Cape Hatteras National Seashore in 2019. Data were stratified across four dominant broadly defined habitats within the park (Maritime Tidal Wetlands, Maritime Nontidal Wetlands, Maritime Open Uplands, and Maritime Upland Forests and Shrublands) and four land parcels (Bodie Island, Buxton, Hatteras Island, and Ocracoke Island). Noteworthy findings include: A total of 265 vascular plant taxa (species or lower) were observed across 52 vegetation plots, including 13 species not previously documented within the park. The most frequently encountered species in each broadly defined habitat included: Maritime Tidal Wetlands: saltmeadow cordgrass Spartina patens), swallow-wort (Pattalias palustre), and marsh fimbry (Fimbristylis castanea) Maritime Nontidal Wetlands: common wax-myrtle (Morella cerifera), saltmeadow cordgrass, eastern poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans var. radicans), and saw greenbriar (Smilax bona-nox) Maritime Open Uplands: sea oats (Uniola paniculata), dune camphorweed (Heterotheca subaxillaris), and seabeach evening-primrose (Oenothera humifusa) Maritime Upland Forests and Shrublands: : loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), southern/eastern red cedar (Juniperus silicicola + virginiana), common wax-myrtle, and live oak (Quercus virginiana). Five invasive species identified as either a Severe Threat (Rank 1) or Significant Threat (Rank 2) to native plants by the North Carolina Native Plant Society (Buchanan 2010) were found during this monitoring effort. These species (and their overall frequency of occurrence within all plots) included: alligatorweed (Alternanthera philoxeroides; 2%), Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica; 10%), Japanese stilt-grass (Microstegium vimineum; 2%), European common reed (Phragmites australis; 8%), and common chickweed (Stellaria media; 2%). Eighteen rare species tracked by the North Carolina Natural Heritage Program (Robinson 2018) were found during this monitoring effort, including two species—cypress panicgrass (Dichanthelium caerulescens) and Gulf Coast spikerush (Eleocharis cellulosa)—listed as State Endangered by the Plant Conservation Program of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (NCPCP 2010). Southern/eastern red cedar was a dominant species within the tree stratum of both Maritime Nontidal Wetland and Maritime Upland Forest and Shrubland habitat types. Other dominant tree species within CAHA forests included loblolly pine, live oak, and Darlington oak (Quercus hemisphaerica). One hundred percent of the live swamp bay (Persea palustris) trees measured in these plots were experiencing declining vigor and observed with symptoms like those caused by laurel wilt......less

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