retroperitoneal lymph node
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Tomoyuki Nagai ◽  
Muneaki Shimada ◽  
Hideki Tokunaga ◽  
Mitsuya Ishikawa ◽  
Nobuo Yaegashi

Abstract Objective The mainstay of treatment for uterine endometrial cancer is surgery, and recurrent-risk cases require multidisciplinary treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Methods The standard surgery for uterine endometrial cancer is hysterectomy and bilateral salpingooophorectomy, with additional retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and omentectomy, depending on the case. The appropriate treatment is determined based on the risk classification, such as the depth of invasion into the myometrium, diagnosis of histological type and grade, and risk assessment of lymph node metastasis. Results Recently, minimally invasive surgery has been widely used not only in low-risk patients but also in intermediate- and high-risk patients. In low-risk patients, the possibility of ovarian preservation is discussed from a healthcare perspective for young women. Determining the need for retroperitoneal lymph node dissection based on sentinel lymph node evaluation may contribute in minimizing the incidence of post-operative lymphedema while ensuring accurate diagnosis of lymph node metastasis. Recently, many studies using sentinel lymph nodes have been reported for patients with uterine endometrial cancer, and the feasibility of sentinel lymph node mapping surgery has been proven. Unfortunately, sentinel lymph node biopsy and sentinel lymph node mapping surgery have not been widely adopted in surgery for uterine cancer in Japan. In addition, the search for biomarkers, such as RNA sequencing using The Cancer Genome Atlas, metabolic profile and lipidomic profile for early detection and prognostic evaluation, has been actively pursued. Conclusions Gynecologic oncologists expect to be able to provide uterine endometrial cancer patients with appropriate treatment that preserves their quality of life without compromising oncologic outcomes in the near future.

2021 ◽  
Shiqi Qiao ◽  
Hongtao Zhang ◽  
Xuemin Di ◽  
JinXin Zhao ◽  
Juan Wang

Abstract Background: The prognosis of cervical cancer is remarkable, but there are still instances of pelvic and/or extrapelvic recurrence after radical hysterectomy with platinum-based chemoradiotherapy. Sixty percent of the patients with radiotherapy (RT) failure have pelvic recurrence, and 80% of them relapse within two years after treatment. Recurrent cervical cancer seriously affects the prognosis and survival rate of patients. Due to the dose limitation for normal tissue, it is difficult to deliver a sufficient number of doses to recurrent lesions through reirradiation. With the rapid development of brachytherapy technologies such as three-dimensional afterloading brachytherapy, interstitial brachytherapy and radioactive 125I seed implantation, the overall survival (OS) of patients with recurrent cervical cancer has been improving. In the present study, a case in which the patient was successfully treated with radioactive 125I seed implantation is reported.Case presentation: The patient, a 47-year-old woman, was initially diagnosed with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IB cervical cancer and received preoperative radiotherapy, radical hysterectomy, pelvic lymph node dissection and postoperative radiotherapy. After 95 months of follow-up, retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis and edema of the left lower limb . The size of the retroperitoneal lesion was 2.3 × 2.0 cm, and the size of the left supraclavicle lesion was 2.0 × 1.5 cm. Radioactive 125I seed implantation was performed for retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis and left supraclavicular metastasis. Paclitaxel and cisplatin chemotherapy were given after the operation. Three months after implantation, the size of the retroperitoneal focus was 1.5 × 1.1 cm, and the size of the left supraclavicular lesion was 1.0 × 0.6 cm. Thirteen months after implantation, according to the RECIST standard, the therapeutic effect reached CR. At the time of submission, the patient's progression-free survival was 6 years and 4 months.Conclusions: CT-guided 125I seed implantation is a safe, effective, and minimally invasive method for treating patients with recurrent cervical cancer after radiotherapy. The response of this patient indicates that 125I seed implantation can be used as a complementary treatment for recurrent cervical cancer after chemoradiotherapy and may also prove to be reliable for comprehensive treatment of cervical cancer.

2021 ◽  
Vol 33 ◽  
pp. S58
A. Oluwole-Ojo ◽  
B. Challacombe ◽  
Y. Abu Ghanem ◽  
S. Rudman ◽  
H. Verma ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 27-37
V. B. Matveev ◽  
M. I. Volkova ◽  
G. A. Arakelyan ◽  
I. A. Feinstein ◽  
Yu. S. Sergeev ◽  

Objective: To evaluate the results of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) in patients with advanced non-seminomatous germ cell testicular tumors (NSGCT) and incomplete serological and radiological response to chemotherapy (CT).Materials and methods: The study included 96 patients with advanced NSGCT who underwent RPLND in N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center in 1983-2020. The median age was 27 (15-57) years. All patients (n = 96, 100,0 %) received first-line cisplatin-based CT. Fifty-eight patients (60,4%) received second-line CT. After completion of CT, all patients presented with elevated levels of AFP and/or hCG and detectable tumor lesions (retroperitoneal metastases only in 77 cases (80,2 %), metastases in the retroperitoneal space and other sites in 19 cases (19,8%)). All patients underwent the follow-up surgery after CT completion: RPLND in 96 cases (100,0%) and resection of extra-retroperitoneal lesions in addition to RPLND in 8 cases (8,3%). In total, 29 (30,2%) of 96 patients received CT following surgery. The median follow-up was 39,4 (1-284) months.Results: Postoperative complications were reported in 10 (10,6%) patients, including grade 3-4 in 3 patients (3,1%). The mortality rate was 1,1%. The complete resection of retroperitoneal tumor lesions was performed in 80 cases (83,3 %), resection of all detectable tumor lesions in 69 cases (71,9%). None of the patients achieved complete response to postoperative CT. Pathological examination of retroperitoneal lesions revealed necrosis and fibrosis, teratomas, and malignant non-seminomatous tumors in 25 (26,0 %), 29 (30,2 %), and 42 (43,8 %) cases, respectively. The long-term overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival rates were 60,9 % and 61,7 %, respectively. The relapse-free survival rate in patients who underwent complete resection reached 65,2 %, the progression-free survival rate in patients who underwent incomplete resection was 35,9 %. A multivariate analysis revealed the following independent predictors of unfavorable OS: RPLND after second-line CT (odds ratio [OR] 4,667 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1,987-10,961)), presence of a residual retroperitoneal mass of a malignant non-seminomatous tumor (OR 3,081 (95% CI: 1,178-8,055), and incomplete removal of residual lesions after CT (OR 4,445 (95% CI: 1,813-10,899)).Conclusion: Post-CT RPLND may be considered a viable option in the selected group of advanced NSGCT patients with an incomplete serological response to CT eligible for complete resection of all detectable tumor lesions.

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