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2021 ◽  
Vol 148 (Supplement 3) ◽  
pp. S8-S9
An V. Huynh ◽  
Girish Vitalpur

ESMO Open ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (6) ◽  
pp. 100331
E. Gray ◽  
J.D. Figueroa ◽  
O. Oikonomidou ◽  
I. MacPherson ◽  
G. Urquhart ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 206
Sharath Burugina Nagaraja ◽  
Pruthu Thekkur ◽  
Srinath Satyanarayana ◽  
Prathap Tharyan ◽  
Karuna D. Sagili ◽  

India launched a national community-based active TB case finding (ACF) campaign in 2017 as part of the strategic plan of the National Tuberculosis Elimination Programme (NTEP). This review evaluated the outcomes for the components of the ACF campaign against the NTEP’s minimum indicators and elicited the challenges faced in implementation. We supplemented data from completed pretested data proformas returned by ACF programme managers from nine states and two union territories (for 2017–2019) and five implementing partner agencies (2013–2020), with summary national data on the state-wise ACF outcomes for 2018–2020 published in annual reports by the NTEP. The data revealed variations in the strategies used to map and screen vulnerable populations and the diagnostic algorithms used across the states and union territories. National data were unavailable to assess whether the NTEP indicators for the minimum proportions identified with presumptive TB among those screened (5%), those with presumptive TB undergoing diagnostic tests (>95%), the minimum sputum smear positivity rate (2% to 3%), those with negative sputum smears tested with chest X-rays or CBNAAT (>95%) and those diagnosed through ACF initiated on anti-TB treatment (>95%) were fulfilled. Only 30% (10/33) of the states in 2018, 23% (7/31) in 2019 and 21% (7/34) in 2020 met the NTEP expectation that 5% of those tested through ACF would be diagnosed with TB (all forms). The number needed to screen to diagnose one person with TB (NNS) was not included among the NTEP’s programme indicators. This rough indicator of the efficiency of ACF varied considerably across the states and union territories. The median NNS in 2018 was 2080 (interquartile range or IQR 517–4068). In 2019, the NNS was 2468 (IQR 1050–7924), and in 2020, the NNS was 906 (IQR 108–6550). The data consistently revealed that the states that tested a greater proportion of those screened during ACF and used chest X-rays or CBNAAT (or both) to diagnose TB had a higher diagnostic yield with a lower NNS. Many implementation challenges, related to health systems, healthcare provision and difficulties experienced by patients, were elicited. We suggest a series of strategic interventions addressing the implementation challenges and the six gaps identified in ACF outcomes and the expected indicators that could potentially improve the efficacy and effectiveness of community-based ACF in India.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Philip M. Reeves ◽  
Jennifer Claydon ◽  
Glen A. Davenport

Purpose Program evaluation stands as an evidence-based process that would allow institutions to document and improve the quality of graduate programs and determine how to respond to growing calls for aligning training models to economic realities. This paper aims to present the current state of evaluation in research-based doctoral programs in STEM fields. Design/methodology/approach To highlight the recent evaluative processes, the authors restricted the initial literature search to papers published in English between 2008 and 2019. As the authors were motivated by the shift at NIH, this review focuses on STEM programs, though papers on broader evaluation efforts were included as long as STEM-specific results could be identified. In total, 137 papers were included in the final review. Findings Only nine papers presented an evaluation of a full program. Instead, papers focused on evaluating individual components of a graduate program, testing small interventions or examining existing national data sets. The review did not find any documents that focused on the continual monitoring of training quality. Originality/value This review can serve as a resource, encourage transparency and provide motivation for faculty and administrators to gather and use assessment data to improve training models. By understanding how existing evaluations are conducted and implemented, administrators can apply evidence-based methodologies to ensure the highest quality training to best prepare students.

2021 ◽  
pp. 30
Antony Davies

Joelle N. Robinson-Oghogho ◽  
Roland J. Thorpe

With the majority of U.S. adults not meeting recommended vegetable intakes and well-documented racial and ethnic disparities in fruit and vegetable consumption, various approaches to increase vegetable consumption have been implemented. Gardening is one approach that has been associated with increased vegetable consumption in various subpopulations; however, limited national data exist examining this relationship. Since vegetable acquisition is a necessary antecedent to increased vegetable consumption, this study examines if garden access is associated with vegetable acquisition among adults in a nationally representative sample of U.S. households. Data come from the National Food Acquisition and Purchasing Survey (FAPS), a survey of 4826 US households. Descriptive analysis and modified Poisson regressions were performed to examine associations between household garden access and vegetable acquisition amongst the total population and by race. Results indicate that for foods for at-home consumption, respondents with their own garden had a 30% greater prevalence (PR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.64) of acquiring enough vegetables to meet USDA recommendations compared to respondents in households without access to any gardens. Among Black respondents, those with access to their own garden had over two times increased prevalence (PR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.10, 5.01) of acquiring enough vegetables to meet recommended consumption amounts, compared to Black respondents without any access to a garden. No relationships between garden access and vegetable acquisition were observed for White or Asian respondents. This information may contribute to the body of evidence on strategies for increasing vegetable consumption among U.S. adults.

2021 ◽  
Hung-Chieh Chang ◽  
Li-Ling Hsu ◽  
Wei-Liang Shih

Abstract This study uses an intersectionality lens to understand the inequality of medical use at the intersection of age and air pollution. Using national databases from Taiwan, the results show that the increase of the level of air pollution and age is related to higher percentage of high medical use. Through stratified analysis, we found that there is no significant difference in medical use among different age groups in low AQI (Air Quality Index) areas, Yet, in areas with increasing amounts of polluted air, the elderly have a significantly higher percentage in frequent medical use. Our results show that the elderly people are more susceptible to air pollution, and suggest that, to protect their health and reduce the use of medical care, not only is there a need to reduce air pollution, but also maintain the annual average AQI level to under the value of 50.

Cureus ◽  
2021 ◽  
Daniel T Fuller ◽  
Eyal Kedar ◽  
Carly R Lovelett ◽  
Sumona Mondal ◽  
Shantanu Sur

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