node biopsy
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2022 ◽  
pp. 089875642110723
Matthew L. Raleigh ◽  
Mark M. Smith ◽  
Kendall Taney

Medical records were searched for dogs that had received curative intent surgery for oral malignant melanoma and ipsilateral excisional regional lymph node biopsy. Twenty-seven dogs were operated on and 25 dogs of these dogs met the inclusion criteria of signalment, post-excision margin status, presence of metastasis for each biopsied lymphocentrum, survival time post-excision, presence of recurrence or metastasis at follow-up or at death/euthanasia, location of the primary tumor, and any postoperative adjuvant treatment. These 25 dogs had complete tumor excision with tumor-free margins and 19 (76%) had postoperative adjuvant therapy. Median survival time after excision for the dogs in this study was 335.5 days. Results of this study support previous work that documents prolonged survival time following complete excision of oral malignant melanoma with tumor-free surgical margins in dogs. Additionally, 4 dogs (16%) had histologically confirmed regional lymph node metastasis at the time of definitive surgery.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Shinichi Kinami ◽  
Hitoshi Saito ◽  
Hiroyuki Takamura

The stomach exhibits abundant lymphatic flow, and metastasis to lymph nodes is common. In the case of gastric cancer, there is a regularity to the spread of lymph node metastasis, and it does not easily metastasize outside the regional nodes. Furthermore, when its extent is limited, nodal metastasis of gastric cancer can be cured by appropriate lymph node dissection. Therefore, identifying and determining the extent of lymph node metastasis is important for ensuring accurate diagnosis and appropriate surgical treatment in patients with gastric cancer. However, precise detection of lymph node metastasis remains difficult. Most nodal metastases in gastric cancer are microscopic metastases, which often occur in small-sized lymph nodes, and are thus difficult to diagnose both preoperatively and intraoperatively. Preoperative nodal diagnoses are mainly made using computed tomography, although the specificity of this method is low because it is mainly based on the size of the lymph node. Furthermore, peripheral nodal metastases cannot be palpated intraoperatively, nodal harvesting of resected specimens remains difficult, and the number of lymph nodes detected vary greatly depending on the skill of the technician. Based on these findings, gastrectomy with prophylactic lymph node dissection is considered the standard surgical procedure for gastric cancer. In contrast, several groups have examined the value of sentinel node biopsy for accurately evaluating nodal metastasis in patients with early gastric cancer, reporting high sensitivity and accuracy. Sentinel node biopsy is also important for individualizing and optimizing the extent of uniform prophylactic lymph node dissection and determining whether patients are indicated for function-preserving curative gastrectomy, which is superior in preventing post-gastrectomy symptoms and maintaining dietary habits. Notably, advancements in surgical treatment for early gastric cancer are expected to result in individualized surgical strategies with sentinel node biopsy. Chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer has also progressed, and conversion gastrectomy can now be performed after downstaging, even in cases previously regarded as inoperable. In this review, we discuss the importance of determining lymph node metastasis in the treatment of gastric cancer, the associated difficulties, and the need to investigate strategies that can improve the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis.

2022 ◽  
Ida Skarping ◽  
Looket Dihge ◽  
Par-Ola Bendahl ◽  
Linnea Huss ◽  
Julia Ellbrant ◽  

Background Routine preoperative axillary ultrasonography has proven insufficient for detecting low-burden nodal metastatic deposits. For the majority of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients presenting with clinical T1-T2 N0 disease, the standard axillary staging by sentinel lymph node biopsy is not therapeutic. The pilot non-invasive lymph node staging (NILS) artificial neural network (ANN) model to predict nodal status was published in 2019. The aim of the current study is to assess the performance measures of the model for the prediction of healthy lymph nodes in clinically N0 breast cancer patients at two breast cancer centers in Sweden. Methods This bicenter, observational, retrospective study has been designed to validate the NILS prediction model for nodal status using preoperatively collected clinicopathological and radiological data. A web-based implementation of the nodal status classifier has been developed and will be used in this study, resulting in an estimated probability of healthy lymph nodes for each study participant. Our primary endpoint is to report on the performance of the NILS prediction model to distinguish between healthy and metastatic lymph nodes (discrimination, N0 vs. N+) and compare the observed and predicted event rates of benign axillary nodal status (calibration). Discussion Internationally, there are numerous artificial intelligence projects involving non-invasive identification of N0 breast cancer. Here, we present a robust validation study based on external cohorts of our ANN model. Although validation is necessary to show generalizability, it is often overlooked. If the accuracy and discrimination reach a satisfactory level, our prediction tool can be implemented to assist medical professionals and breast cancer patients in shared decision-making on omitting sentinel node biopsy in patients predicted to be node-negative. In future, this may potentially save healthcare resources and reduce costs and adverse side effects. In addition, our study might prompt future studies of nodal metastases of malignancies in other organs, and thus might have implications beyond breast cancer. Trial registration This study has been prospectively registered in the ISRCTN registry, identification number: 14341750

Ramin Sadeghi ◽  
Reza Shojaeian ◽  
Mehran Hiradfar ◽  
Ahmad Mohammadipour ◽  
Ali Azadmand ◽  

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