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2022 ◽  
Vol 270 ◽  
pp. 421-429
Sarah M. Kling ◽  
George A. Taylor ◽  
Matthew M. Philp ◽  
Juan Lucas Poggio ◽  
Howard M. Ross ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Qinghao Zhao ◽  
Haiyan Xu ◽  
Xuan Zhang ◽  
Yunqing Ye ◽  
Qiuting Dong ◽  

BackgroundWith the growing burden of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), developing countries face great challenges in providing equitable treatment nationwide. However, little is known about hospital-level disparities in the quality of NSTEMI care in China. We aimed to investigate the variations in NSTEMI care and patient outcomes across the three hospital levels (province-, prefecture- and county-level, with decreasing scale) in China.MethodsData were derived from the China Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry on patients with NSTEMI consecutively registered between January 2013 and November 2016 from 31 provinces and municipalities throughout mainland China. Patients were categorized according to the hospital level they were admitted to. Multilevel generalized mixed models were fitted to examine the relationship between the hospital level and in-hospital mortality risk.ResultsIn total, 8,054 patients with NSTEMI were included (province-level: 1,698 patients; prefecture-level: 5,240 patients; county-level: 1,116 patients). Patients in the prefecture- and county-level hospitals were older, more likely to be female, and presented worse cardiac function than those in the province-level hospitals (P <0.05). Compared with the province-level hospitals, the rate of invasive strategies was significantly lower in the prefecture- and county-level hospitals (65.3, 43.3, and 15.4%, respectively, P <0.001). Invasive strategies were performed within the guideline-recommended timeframe in 25.4, 9.7, and 1.7% of very-high-risk patients, and 16.4, 7.4, and 2.4% of high-risk patients in province-, prefecture- and county-level hospitals, respectively (both P <0.001). The use of dual antiplatelet therapy in the county-level hospitals (87.2%) remained inadequate compared to the province- (94.5%, P <0.001) and prefecture-level hospitals (94.5%, P <0.001). There was an incremental trend of in-hospital mortality from province- to prefecture- to county-level hospitals (3.0, 4.4, and 6.9%, respectively, P-trend <0.001). After stepwise adjustment for patient characteristics, presentation, hospital facilities and in-hospital treatments, the hospital-level gap in mortality risk gradually narrowed and lost statistical significance in the fully adjusted model [Odds ratio: province-level vs. prefecture-level: 1.23 (0.73–2.05), P = 0.441; province-level vs. county-level: 1.61 (0.80–3.26), P = 0.182; P-trend = 0.246].ConclusionsThere were significant variations in NSTEMI presentation and treatment patterns across the three hospital levels in China, which may largely explain the hospital-level disparity in in-hospital mortality. Quality improvement initiatives are warranted, especially among lower-level hospitals.

Tomoyuki Nagai ◽  
Muneaki Shimada ◽  
Hideki Tokunaga ◽  
Mitsuya Ishikawa ◽  
Nobuo Yaegashi

Abstract Objective The mainstay of treatment for uterine endometrial cancer is surgery, and recurrent-risk cases require multidisciplinary treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Methods The standard surgery for uterine endometrial cancer is hysterectomy and bilateral salpingooophorectomy, with additional retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and omentectomy, depending on the case. The appropriate treatment is determined based on the risk classification, such as the depth of invasion into the myometrium, diagnosis of histological type and grade, and risk assessment of lymph node metastasis. Results Recently, minimally invasive surgery has been widely used not only in low-risk patients but also in intermediate- and high-risk patients. In low-risk patients, the possibility of ovarian preservation is discussed from a healthcare perspective for young women. Determining the need for retroperitoneal lymph node dissection based on sentinel lymph node evaluation may contribute in minimizing the incidence of post-operative lymphedema while ensuring accurate diagnosis of lymph node metastasis. Recently, many studies using sentinel lymph nodes have been reported for patients with uterine endometrial cancer, and the feasibility of sentinel lymph node mapping surgery has been proven. Unfortunately, sentinel lymph node biopsy and sentinel lymph node mapping surgery have not been widely adopted in surgery for uterine cancer in Japan. In addition, the search for biomarkers, such as RNA sequencing using The Cancer Genome Atlas, metabolic profile and lipidomic profile for early detection and prognostic evaluation, has been actively pursued. Conclusions Gynecologic oncologists expect to be able to provide uterine endometrial cancer patients with appropriate treatment that preserves their quality of life without compromising oncologic outcomes in the near future.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 315-321
Mythreini B S ◽  
Uthayasankar M.K ◽  
Sumanbabu I.S.S

Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is the third leading cause of death in developed countries and is now emerging as the commonest preventable life-threatening neurological problem worldwide. It makes an important contribution to morbidity and mortality in developed as well as developing countries. The prognosis of acute stroke is determined by a series of factors some of which may be used in the early stages of stroke to predict prognosis and mortality. However, the role of inflammatory markers in predicting functional outcome in stroke remains controversial, Iron and ferritin are known to have an important role in stroke as well as in other disorders. Serum ferritin which is considered as an acute phase reactant has also been used for assessing the severity and prognosis of stroke. Therefore, testing of serum ferritin is useful in identifying high risk patients.1: To study the effect of level of serum ferritin with early neurological deterioration and the outcome in patients of acute stroke. 2: Association of serum ferritin in ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke.50 patients with acute stroke were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Appropriate questionnaire was used to collect the data of patients. Diagnosis of stroke was confirmed by CT or MRI scan of brain and examination was done by Canadian stroke scale at the time of admission. About 5ml of venous blood Sample from cubital vein was collected for measuring serum ferritin levels, it was performed within 48hrs of onset of symptoms by using CLIA method. Neurological assessment was repeated on the day of discharge to assess the clinical improvement and prognosis of the stroke patients.Totally 50 patients of acute stroke were included in our study, majority of the patients are males 35 (70%), and females are 15(30%). Approximately 36% were in the age group of 51-60 years. In this study ischemic stroke was seen in 45 (90%) of the patients and 5 (10%) had hemorrhagic stroke. The serum ferritin levels are normal in 41(82%) and high in 9(18%) of the patients. Canadian stroke scale interpretation on the day of discharge showed 20% of the patient are deteriorated, 66% are in the same status and 14% of the patients are improved clinically. The patients with haemorrhagic stroke had high serum ferritin level 60.0% and ischemic stroke are 13.3%. Those patients with high serum ferritin levels had higher deterioration in Canadian stroke scale (p<0.001). The mean serum ferritin levels are higher in deteriorated patients 199.29% when compared to other status group in Canadian stroke scale.High levels of serum ferritin correlates well with early neurological deterioration of stroke patients. Based on this study finding, that high serum ferritin level within 48 hours after the onset of symptoms of stroke helps to predict the early prognosis. Therefore, testing of serum ferritin is useful in identifying high risk patients.

2022 ◽  
Nicolas Yin ◽  
Cyril Debuysschere ◽  
Valery Daubie ◽  
Marc Hildebrand ◽  
Charlotte Martin ◽  

The Lumipulse® G SARS-CoV-2 Ag assay performance was evaluated on prospectively collected saliva and nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) of recently ill in- and outpatients and according to the estimated viral load. Performances were calculated using RT-PCR positive NPS from patients with symptoms ≤ 7 days and RT-PCR negative NPS as gold standard. In addition, non-selected positive NPS were analyzed to assess the performances on various viral loads. This assay yielded a sensitivity of 93.1% on NPS and 71.4% on saliva for recently ill patients. For NPS with a viral load > 103 RNA copies/mL, sensitivity was 96.4%. A model established on our daily routine showed fluctuations of the performances depending on the epidemic trends but an overall good negative predictive value. Lumipulse® G SARS-CoV-2 assay yielded good performance for an automated antigen detection assay on NPS. Using it for the detection of recently ill patient or to screen high-risk patients could be an interesting alternative to the more expensive RT-PCR.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 374
Simon Bailey ◽  
Nicolas André ◽  
Lorenza Gandola ◽  
Maura Massimino ◽  
Stefan Rutkowski ◽  

Medulloblastoma patients receive adapted therapies stratified according to their risk-profile. Favourable, standard, and high disease-risk groups are each defined by the status of clinical and pathological risk factors, alongside an evolving repertoire of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Medulloblastoma clinical trials in Europe are coordinated by the International Society for Paediatric Oncology (SIOP-Europe) brain tumour group. Favourable and standard-risk patients are eligible for the SIOP-PNET5-MB clinical trial protocol. In contrast, therapies for high-risk disease worldwide have, to date, encompassed a range of different treatment philosophies, with no clear consensus on approach. Higher radiotherapy doses are typically deployed, delivered either conventionally or in hyper-fractionated/accelerated regimens. Similarly, both standard and high-dose chemotherapies were assessed. However, trials to date in high-risk medulloblastoma have commonly been institutional or national, based on modest cohort sizes, and have not evaluated the relative performance of different strategies in a randomised fashion. We describe the concepts and design of the SIOP-E high-risk medulloblastoma clinical trial (SIOP-HR-MB), the first international biomarker-driven, randomised, clinical trial for high-risk medulloblastoma. SIOP-HR-MB is programmed to recruit >800 patients in 16 countries across Europe; its primary objectives are to assess the relative efficacies of the alternative established regimens. The HR-MB patient population is molecularly and clinically defined, and upfront assessments incorporate a standardised central review of molecular pathology, radiology, and radiotherapy quality assurance. Secondary objectives include the assessment of (i) novel therapies within an upfront ‘window’ and (ii) therapy-associated neuropsychology, toxicity, and late effects, alongside (iii) the collection of materials for comprehensive integrated studies of biological determinants within the SIOP-HR-MB cohort.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Gangqiang Lin ◽  
Minlei Hu ◽  
Jiaying Song ◽  
Xueqian Xu ◽  
Haiwei Liu ◽  

Background: Stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP) is associated with poor prognosis after acute ischemic stroke (AIS).Purpose: This study aimed to describe the parameters of coagulation function and evaluate the association between the fibrinogen-to-albumin ratio (FAR) and SAP in patients with AIS.Patients and methods: A total of 932 consecutive patients with AIS were included. Coagulation parameters were measured at admission. All patients were classified into two groups according to the optimal cutoff FAR point at which the sum of the specificity and sensitivity was highest. Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to balance potential confounding factors. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to identify predictors of SAP.Results: A total of 100 (10.7%) patients were diagnosed with SAP. The data showed that fibrinogen, FAR, and D-dimer, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were higher in patients with SAP, while albumin was much lower. Patients with SAP showed a significantly increased FAR when compared with non-SAP (P < 0.001). Patients were assigned to groups of high FAR (≥0.0977) and low FAR (<0.0977) based on the optimal cut-off value. Propensity score matching analysis further confirmed the association between FAR and SAP. After adjusting for confounding and risk factors, multivariate regression analysis showed that the high FAR (≥0.0977) was an independent variable predicting the occurrence of SAP (odds ratio =2.830, 95% CI = 1.654–4.840, P < 0.001). In addition, the FAR was higher in the severe pneumonia group when it was assessed by pneumonia severity index (P = 0.008).Conclusions: High FAR is an independent potential risk factor of SAP, which can help clinicians identify high-risk patients with SAP after AIS.

Jia-Lun Guan ◽  
Ge Wang ◽  
Dan Fang ◽  
Ying-Ying Han ◽  
Mu-Ru Wang ◽  

Aim: Different researches showed controversial results about the ‘off-hours effect’ in nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB). Materials & methods: A total of 301 patients with NVUGIB were divided into regular-hours group and off-hours group based on when they received endoscopic hemostasis, and the relationship of the clinical outcomes with off-hours endoscopic hemostasis was evaluated. Results: Patients who received off-hours endoscopy were sicker and more likely to experience worse clinical outcomes. Off-hours endoscopic hemostasis was a significant predictor of the composite outcome in higher-risk patients (adjusted OR: 4.63; 95% CI: 1.35–15.90). However, it did not associate with the outcomes in lower-risk patients. Conclusion: Off-hours effect may affect outcomes of higher-risk NVUGIB patients receiving endoscopic hemostasis (GBS ≥12).

Mehrdad Sharifi ◽  
Mohammad Hossein Khademian ◽  
Razieh Sadat Mousavi-Roknabadi ◽  
Vahid Ebrahimi ◽  
Robab Sadegh

Background:Patients who are identified to be at a higher risk of mortality from COVID-19 should receive better treatment and monitoring. This study aimed to propose a simple yet accurate risk assessment tool to help decision-making in the management of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: From Jul to Nov 2020, 5454 patients from Fars Province, Iran, diagnosed with COVID-19 were enrolled. A multiple logistic regression model was trained on one dataset (training set: n=4183) and its prediction performance was assessed on another dataset (testing set: n=1271). This model was utilized to develop the COVID-19 risk-score in Fars (CRSF). Results: Five final independent risk factors including gender (male: OR=1.37), age (60-80: OR=2.67 and >80: OR=3.91), SpO2 (≤85%: OR=7.02), underlying diseases (yes: OR=1.25), and pulse rate (<60: OR=2.01 and >120: OR=1.60) were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality. The CRSF formula was obtained using the estimated regression coefficient values of the aforementioned factors. The point values for the risk factors varied from 2 to 19 and the total CRSF varied from 0 to 45. The ROC analysis showed that the CRSF values of ≥15 (high-risk patients) had a specificity of 73.5%, sensitivity of 76.5%, positive predictive value of 23.2%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 96.8% for the prediction of death (AUC=0.824, P<0.0001). Conclusion:This simple CRSF system, which has a high NPV,can be useful for predicting the risk of mortality in COVID-19 patients. It can also be used as a disease severity indicator to determine triage level for hospitalization.

Amir Samii ◽  
Mahshaad Norouzi ◽  
Abbas Ahmadi ◽  
Akbar Dorgalaleh

AbstractGastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is serious, intractable, and potentially life-threatening condition. There is considerable heterogeneity in GIB phenotypes among congenital bleeding disorders (CBDs), making GIB difficult to manage. Although GIB is rarely encountered in CBDs, its severity in some patients makes the need for a comprehensive and precise assessment of underlying factors and management approaches imperative. Initial evaluation of GIB begins with assessment of hematological status; GIB should be ruled out in patients with chronic anemia, and in presentations that include hematemesis, hematochezia, or melena. High-risk patients with recurrent GIB require urgent interventions such as replacement therapy for treatment of coagulation factor deficiency (CFD). However, the best management strategy for CFD-related bleeding remains controversial. While several investigations have identified CBDs as potential risk factors for GIB, research has focused on assessing the risks for individual factor deficiencies and other CBDs. This review highlights recent findings on the prevalence, management strategies, and alternative therapies of GIB related to CFDs, and platelet disorders.

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