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2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-7
Szilvia Zámolyi ◽  

Background: The incidence of melanoma malignum increases worldwide. Detailed objective analyses from central European region are scarcely available. Objective: To obtain validated data on melanoma distribution and retrospective analysis in the central region of Hungary based on 35 years of experience in a single center. Methods: The authors monitored the clinical course of their patients with melanoma between 1984 and 2018 based on the digitalized documentation of their institute. They analyzed the treated and non-treated cases with the leadership of a dermatologist-pathologist-oncologist. Altogether 867 cases (450 female, 417 male) were examined from the removal of the primary tumor onwards in retrospective way. Results: Distribution of gender, age, tumor stages and body regions by genders were examined. The authors also reviewed the asymptomatic period until tumor progression, morbidity data, the period and effect of the adjuvant low, intermediate and high dose interferon α-2b immunotherapy. Patients with lymph node metastasis who received low or intermediate dose immunotherapy experienced significantly longer tumor-free period than those who got high-dose immunotherapy. In both treated groups, the median value of the asymptomatic months was higher compared to the observation only” group. Conclusion: The results of their long-term follow-up contribute to the accurate evaluation of melanoma and of the interferon therapy in Hungary and in the region.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (27) ◽  
pp. 8071-8081
Cui-Nan Jiang ◽  
Xiao Cheng ◽  
Jing Shan ◽  
Mei Yang ◽  
Yu-Qing Xiao

2021 ◽  
Sean Si Qian Ma ◽  
Luyi Ye ◽  
Fan Zhang ◽  
Tiansheng Xu ◽  
Zai-Si Ji ◽  

Abstract Background: Specific gene expression profiles correlate with recurrence of breast cancer in lymph node-negative patients. In contrast, insufficient knowledge is available regarding tumor-specific gene expression in patients with lymph node metastasis before surgery. Furthermore, such patients experience cumulative incidences of relapse greater than 50%. Methods: Sections of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) were prepared from breast tumors of 37 patients who were followed for at least 5 years. FFPE samples of patients with recurrent ductal breast cancer (n = 25) and 12 FFPE samples of such patients without recurrence were subjected to microarray analysis to identify gene expression profiles specifically associated with positive lymph nodes confirmed during surgery that were accompanied by lymphocytic invasion. Immunohistochemistry was employed to determine the estrogen receptor (ER) status of cancer tissues. All patients were administered tamoxifen after surgery, and this treatment continued for more than 5 years, or until cancer recurred. This strategy eliminated interactions between different therapeutics as potential confounding factors that influenced patients' outcomes.Results: Sixteen genes were expressed at significantly higher levels in patients with ER-positive (+) breast cancer with recurrence compared with those without recurrence. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis of The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) identified 73 genes encoding olfactory receptors included in the “Olfactory transduction” pathway that were enriched in the ER+ recurrence group (FDR P < 0.05). The KEGG “Histidine metabolism” and “Retinol metabolism” pathways were enriched in patients with ER-negative (–) breast cancer with recurrence (FDR P < 0.05). Conclusions: The present study is the first, to our knowledge, to identify 16 genes encoding proteins with diverse functions as well as 73 genes encoding olfactory receptors. These genes may serve as presurgical biomarkers for the recurrence of ER+ breast cancers with lymph node metastasis before surgery. These findings identify potential therapeutic targets for preventing cancer relapse, particularly after lymph nodes metastasis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Ting Zhang ◽  
Liang He ◽  
Zhihong Wang ◽  
Wenwu Dong ◽  
Wei Sun ◽  

BackgroundAs many inconsistent reports on the clinical manifestations and prognosis between unilateral unifocal PTC (UUPTC) and unilateral multifocal PTC (UMPTC), identifying the difference should guide management. The purpose of this study was to investigate other additional differences between UUPTC and UMPTC in addition to their difference in the number of cancer foci.Data SourcesA systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed and Web of Science databases for relevant studies published before December 31, 2020. Their reference lists were also reviewed.Review MethodsTwo reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the quality of eligible studies. Studies on patients who underwent an open thyroidectomy with or without neck dissection were included. Data were analyzed using the RevMan 5.3 software.ResultsFifteen studies comprising 9,665 patients were selected for the meta-analysis. UMPTC occurred in 10% to 36% of all PTC cases. There were no significant differences between UMPTC and UUPTC patients in age, gender, tumor size, and extrathyroidal extension (ETE). However, significant differences (P &lt; 0.05) between UMPTC and UUPTC patients were observed in central lymph node metastasis (CLNM), lateral lymph node metastasis (LLNM), tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage I+II, TNM stage III+IV, the recurrence/persistence of the UMPTC group after total thyroidectomy and overall recurrence/persistence.ConclusionUMPTC patients are more likely to have CLNM, LLNM, more advanced TNM stage, and recurrence/persistence than UUPTC patients. Compared with UUPTC, UMPTC patients should undergo central lymph node dissection, and pay more attention to LLNM, TNM stage and recurrence/persistence during the follow-up.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Chenya Lu ◽  
Xingjia Li ◽  
Xiaoqiu Chu ◽  
Ruiping Li ◽  
Jie Li ◽  

ObjectiveThis study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of ultrasound-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) in the treatment of low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC), and to observe the histopathological changes after MWA.MethodsMWA was performed under ultrasound guidance for 73 unifocal PTMC patients without clinically cervical or distant metastasis. The target ablation zone exceeded the tumor edge (judged by contrast-enhanced US) to avoid marginal residue and recurrence. Ultrasound evaluation was performed at 1 day, 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after treatment, and thyroid function evaluation at the first 6 months. Repeated fine needle aspiration cytology or core needle biopsy pathology was performed at 3 or 6 months after MWA to evaluate residual tumors. Any adverse event associated with MWA was evaluated.ResultsThe follow-up after MWA lasted 6 (6, 12) months. Tumor volume decreased significantly from 0.06 mm3 (0.04, 0.11 mm3) to 0.03 mm3 (0.00, 0.06 mm3) at 12 months after MWA (P&lt; 0.001), with a median volume reduction ratio of 80.28% (-7.43, 100%) and 16 cases (21.92%) presenting complete remission. The largest diameter, volume and ablation energy were found to be different in patients with and without complete remission 12 months after MWA. On histopathological examinations, no atypical or malignant follicular cells were identified after thermal ablation. The most common pathological characteristics were fibroblastic proliferation (34/39, 87.18%) and chronic inflammation (32/39, 82.05%), followed by infarction (21/39, 53.85%). Five patients were transferred to thyroidectomy and 4 of them were confirmed with local recurrence and/or lymph node metastasis. Serum thyrotropin decreased transiently after MWA (P&lt; 0.01) but normalized thereafter. No serious and permanent complications were reported.ConclusionsMWA is a safe and effective treatment for low-risk PTMC. Fibroblastic proliferation and chronic inflammation are the most common pathological changes after MWA of PTMC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Noora Nykänen ◽  
Rami Mäkelä ◽  
Antti Arjonen ◽  
Ville Härmä ◽  
Laura Lewandowski ◽  

The purpose of ex vivo drug screening in the context of precision oncology is to serve as a functional diagnostic method for therapy efficacy modeling directly on patient-derived tumor cells. Here, we report a case study using integrated multiomics ex vivo drug screening approach to assess therapy efficacy in a rare metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the parotid gland. Tumor cells isolated from lymph node metastasis and distal subcutaneous metastasis were used for imaging-based single-cell resolution drug screening and reverse-phase protein array-based drug screening assays to inform the treatment strategy after standard therapeutic options had been exhausted. The drug targets discovered on the basis of the ex vivo measured drug efficacy were validated with histopathology, genomic profiling, and in vitro cell biology methods, and targeted treatments with durable clinical responses were achieved. These results demonstrate the use of serial ex vivo drug screening to inform adjuvant therapy options prior to and during treatment and highlight HER2 as a potential therapy target also in metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the salivary glands.

2021 ◽  
Fei Liu ◽  
Ye Han ◽  
Dongbao Li ◽  
Jun Zhou ◽  
Jingjing Xu ◽  

Abstract Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignant tumors with a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Exosomal miRNAs are considered as promising non-invasive biomarkers for the diagnosis of malignant tumors. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of exosomal miR-17-92 cluster and develop a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of GC. Exosomal RNAs were extracted and the expression profile of miR-17-92 cluster was detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The ROC (receiver-operating characteristic) curve and AUC (area under the ROC curve) analysis were used to explore the diagnostic utility of miRNAs. Statistical was used to analyze the expression of serum exosomal miR-17-92 cluster with the clinical pathological parameters of GC patients. The results showed that the expressions of four members of the exosomal miR-17-92 cluster in the serum samples of GC patients were significantly upregulated compared with those of healthy controls. The AUC for serum exosomal miR-17, miR-18, miR-19a and miR-92 was 0.750 (95%CI=0.626-0.874, sensitivity=84.7%, specificity=70.0%), 0.736 (95%CI=0.590-0.881, sensitivity=88.9%, specificity=65.0%), 0.700 (95%CI=0.562-0.838, sensitivity=62.5%, specificity=80.0%), 0.689 (95%CI=0.567-0.811, sensitivity=45.8%, specificity=90.0%), respectively. The AUC for the newly combined panel consisting of miR-17, miR-18, miR-19a and miR-92 was 0.808 (95%CI=0.680-0.937), with sensitivity of 90.3% and specificity of 70.0%, which showed much higher clinical diagnostic value for GC than any of the four alone or any pair. Besides, the AUC for the newly developed panel consisting of the two traditional tumor biomarkers including CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) and CA19-9 (carbohydrate antigen 19-9) and the four miR-17-92 cluster members was 0.881 (95%CI, 0.765-0.998) with sensitivity of 91.7% and specificity of 90.0%, which showed the greatest powerful clinical diagnostic value for GC. Moreover, the elevated exosomal miR-17-92 expressions were closely correlated with tumor size, tumor depth, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and TNM stage of GC patients. In conclusion, our findings revealed that circulating exosomal miR-17-92 cluster may be used as a novel potential non-invasive biomarker to improve the diagnostic efficiency in GC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Yonglian Huang ◽  
Hengwei Zhang ◽  
Lidong Wang ◽  
Chenxi Liu ◽  
Mingyue Guo ◽  

Abstract Background Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), with a rapidly increasing incidence, is the most prevalent malignant cancer of the thyroid. However, its pathogenesis is unclear and its specific clinical indicators have not yet been identified. There is increasing evidence that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in tumor occurrence and progression. Specifically, miR-613 participates in the regulation of tumor development in various cancers; however, its effects and mechanisms of action in PTC are still unclear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the expression and function of miR-613 in PTC. Methods qRT-PCR was used to determine miR-613 expression in 107 pairs of PTC and adjacent-normal tissues as well as in PTC cell lines and to detect TAGLN2 mRNA expression in PTC tissues and adjacent normal tissues. Western blot analysis was performed to identify TAGLN2 and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) biomarkers. The effects of miR-613 on PTC progression were evaluated by performing MTS, wound-healing, and Transwell assays in vitro. Luciferase reporter assays were also performed to validate the target of miR-613. Results In PTC, miR-613 was significantly downregulated and its low expression level was associated with cervical lymph node metastasis. However, its overexpression significantly suppressed PTC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and inhibited EMT. TAGLN2 was identified as a target of miR-613, which also significantly inhibited the expression of TAGLN2. Further, the restoration of TAGLN2 expression attenuated the inhibitory effects of miR-613 on PTC cell proliferation and metastasis. Conclusion Our findings demonstrated that miR-613 can suppress the progression of PTC cells by targeting TAGLN2, indicating that miR-613 plays the role of a tumor suppressor in PTC. Overall, these results suggest that the upregulation of miR-613 is a promising therapeutic strategy for PTC.

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