tea tree oil
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Francine Gloerfelt‐Tarp ◽  
Jos C. Mieog ◽  
Mark Bigland ◽  
Simon Wheeler ◽  
William M. Palmer ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 1889 (1) ◽  
pp. 292-292

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Lixue Wang ◽  
Ying Zhang ◽  
Ling Liu ◽  
Fei Huang ◽  
Bing Dong

Tea tree oil (TTO) exerts key roles in improving growth performance of pigs. However, knowledge is limited regarding comparative effects of Encp TTO and Un-encp TTO supplementation on growth performance of pigs. A study determined the effects of TTO or its capsulation on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, and intestinal microbiome of weaned pigs. A total of 144 healthy pigs (8.5 ± 0.24 kg) were subjected to four treatments for a 28-d trial with six replicates per treatment and six pigs per pen: negative control, NC; positive control, PC (antibiotic supplemented); Un-encp TTO (supplemented with unencapsulated TTO); Encp TTO (supplemented with encapsulated TTO). NC, TTO, and PC treatments were compared with regard to improved average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed conversion rate, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphology (p < 0.05) and decreased diarrhea rate. TTO- and PC-treated pigs had higher levels of serum superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and immunoglobulin G; lower levels of liver aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase; and improved concentrations of interleukin 10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor α, and IL-1β (p < 0.05). TTO- and PC-treated pigs had higher abundance of beneficial bacterial species Subdoligranulum and lower abundance of diarrhea associated species Escherichia–Shigella in cecal and colonic digesta (p < 0.05). Encapsulation of TTO preserved more activities of TTO than its unencapsulated counterpart by showing higher ADG, ADFI, and feed conversion rate during day 1 (d1) to d14 (p < 0.05) and tended to lower diarrhea rate (p = 0.083) and improve villous height/crypt depth (VH/CD) ratio (p = 0.089) in jejunum. Encapsulation of TTO also improved antioxidant indexes and decreased liver injury and inflammation accordingly (p < 0.05). Encapsulated TTO-treated pigs had higher abundance of beneficial Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 and lower the abundance of harmful Escherichia–Shigella in cecal and colonic digesta (p < 0.05). Our results demonstrated TTO benefits on improving growth performance of weaned pigs and further proved that encapsulation of TTO was superior to its unencapsulated counterpart at multiples. Encapsulated TTO was similar to the PC group and could be potentially an alternative of feed antibiotics for weaned pigs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 167 ◽  
pp. 105989
Flavia Laffleur ◽  
Martin Ataii ◽  
Magdalena Nagler

2021 ◽  
Alpna Bisht ◽  
Chetna Hemrajani ◽  
Navneet Upadhyay ◽  
Prakriti Nidhi ◽  
Rajan Rolta ◽  

Aim: Azelaic acid (AzA), a comedolytic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory anti-melanogenic agent, prescribed against acne vulgaris is safe on skin. Its combination with another widely used anti-acne agent, tea tree oil (EO) whose delivery is limited by volatility, instability and lipophilicity constraints was attempted. Method: Solvent injection was used to prepare AzA-EO integrated ethosomes. Result: Ethosomes were transformed into carbopol hydrogel, which exhibited pseudo-plastic properties with appreciable firmness, work of shear, stickiness and work of adhesion. The hydrogel showed better permeation and retention characteristics vis-a-vis commercial formulation (AzidermTM), when evaluated in Wistar rat skin. Further, ethosome hydrogel composite was better tolerated with no side effects. Conclusion: The findings suggests that the aforementioned strategy could be a potential treatment used for acne management.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Qi Shao ◽  
Junjie Huang ◽  
Jingui Li

Viral disease management has been proven difficult, and there are no broadly licensed vaccines or therapeutics. Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) is an active pathogen of wild ungulates and livestock; its infection frequently caused irreversible vesicles on the tongue or other positions, leading to enormous economic loss. Tea tree oil (TTO) has been shown to be a popular remedy for many skin diseases owing to its antibacterial, antipruritic, and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the potential effect of TTO on VSV proliferation and the corresponding inflammatory response in cells remain unclear. In this study, methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay was used to evaluate the cell viability of TTO, and cytotoxic concentration 50 (CC50) was calculated. Then, fluorescence observation, reverse transcription–quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blot (WB), and flow cytometry (FCM) assay were used to evaluate the antiviral effect of TTO against VSV under three manners of pre-infection before medication, co-administration, pretreatment before infection at safe doses to Vero cells. Meanwhile, the mRNA expressions of interleukin 8, tumor necrosis factor α, and ISG56 in cells were also detected. The results showed that the maximum safe concentration of TTO to Vero cells was 0.063% and the CC50 is 0.32%. Most notably, TTO dose-dependently inhibited the VSV GFP fluorescence generation and restrained the replication of VSV in gene and protein levels regardless of the treatment modes. Based on the results of the FCM, effective concentration 50 of TTO against VSV is 0.019%. Similarly, the mRNA expression of the above cytokines induced by viral infection was also remarkably curbed. These findings suggest that TTO emerged blocking, prophylaxis, and treatment action against VSV replication and suppressed the related inflammation in Vero cells. This study provides a novel potential for TTO fighting against viral infection and anti-inflammatory activities in Vero cells.

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