carbapenem resistant
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Robert J. Clifford ◽  
Donna Newhart ◽  
Maryrose R. Laguio-Vila ◽  
Jennifer L. Gutowski ◽  
Melissa Z. Bronstein ◽  

Abstract Objective: To quantitatively evaluate relationships between infection preventionists (IPs) staffing levels, nursing hours, and rates of 10 types of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Design and setting: An ambidirectional observation in a 528-bed teaching hospital. Patients: All inpatients from July 1, 2012, to February 1, 2021. Methods: Standardized US National Health Safety Network (NHSN) definitions were used for HAIs. Staffing levels were measured in full-time equivalents (FTE) for IPs and total monthly hours worked for nurses. A time-trend analysis using control charts, t tests, Poisson tests, and regression analysis was performed using Minitab and R computing programs on rates and standardized infection ratios (SIRs) of 10 types of HAIs. An additional analysis was performed on 3 stratifications: critically low (2–3 FTE), below recommended IP levels (4–6 FTE), and at recommended IP levels (7–8 FTE). Results: The observation covered 1.6 million patient days of surveillance. IP staffing levels fluctuated from ≤2 IP FTE (critically low) to 7–8 IP FTE (recommended levels). Periods of highest catheter-associated urinary tract infection SIRs, hospital-onset Clostridioides difficile and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infection rates, along with 4 of 5 types of surgical site SIRs coincided with the periods of lowest IP staffing levels and the absence of certified IPs and a healthcare epidemiologist. Central-line–associated bloodstream infections increased amid lower nursing levels despite the increased presence of an IP and a hospital epidemiologist. Conclusions: Of 10 HAIs, 8 had highest incidences during periods of lowest IP staffing and experience. Some HAI rates varied inversely with levels of IP staffing and experience and others appeared to be more influenced by nursing levels or other confounders.

Letícia Kellen de Andrade ◽  
Arturo Levican ◽  
Louise Cerdeira ◽  
Andressa Batista Zequini de Morais ◽  
Melissa Maia Braz ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 857
Mariangela Pampalone ◽  
Giampiero Vitale ◽  
Salvatore Gruttadauria ◽  
Giandomenico Amico ◽  
Gioacchin Iannolo ◽  

Background: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a severe and often fatal infection in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and ascites. The only cure for SBP is antibiotic therapy, but the emerging problem of bacterial resistance requires novel therapeutic strategies. Human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hA-MSCs) possess immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties that can be harnessed as a therapy in such a context. Methods: An in vitro applications of hA-MSCs in ascitic fluid (AF) of cirrhotic patients, subsequently infected with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales, was performed. We evaluated the effects of hA-MSCs on bacterial load, innate immunity factors, and macrophage phenotypic expression. Results: hA-MSCs added to AF significantly reduce the proliferation of both bacterial strains at 24 h and diversely affect M1 and M2 polarization, C3a complement protein, and ficolin 3 concentrations during the course of infection, in a bacterial strain-dependent fashion. Conclusion: This study shows the potential usefulness of hA-MSC in treating ascites infected with carbapenem-resistant bacteria and lays the foundation to further investigate antibacterial and anti-inflammatory roles of hA-MSC in in vivo models.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 159
Katerina Tsilipounidaki ◽  
Zoi Athanasakopoulou ◽  
Elke Müller ◽  
Sindy Burgold-Voigt ◽  
Zoi Florou ◽  

Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a public health threat that requires urgent action. The fact that these pathogens commonly also harbor resistance mechanisms for several other antimicrobial classes further reduces patient treatment options. The present study aimed to provide information regarding the multidrug resistance genetic background of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in Central Greece. Strains from a tertiary care hospital, collected during routine practice, were characterized using a DNA microarray-based assay. Various different resistance determinants for carbapenems, other beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, quinolones, trimethoprim, sulfonamides and macrolides were detected among isolates of the same sequence type. Eighteen different multidrug resistance genomic profiles were identified among the twenty-four K. pneumoniae ST258, seven different profiles among the eight K. pneumoniae ST11, four profiles among the six A. baumannii ST409 and two among the three K. oxytoca. This report describes the multidrug resistance genomic background of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria from a tertiary care hospital in Central Greece, providing evidence of their continuous genetic evolution.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Qingqing Fang ◽  
Yu Feng ◽  
Alan McNally ◽  
Zhiyong Zong

AbstractCarbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) has emerged as a severe global health challenge. We isolate and characterize two previously unidentified lytic phages, P24 and P39, with large burst sizes active against ST11 KL64, a major CRKP lineage. P24 and P39 represent species of the genera Przondovirus (Studiervirinae subfamily) and Webervirus (Drexlerviridae family), respectively. P24 and P39 together restrain CRKP growth to nearly 8 h. Phage-resistant mutants exhibit reduced capsule production and decreased virulence. Modifications in mshA and wcaJ encoding capsule polysaccharide synthesis mediate P24 resistance whilst mutations in epsJ encoding exopolysaccharide synthesis cause P39 resistance. We test P24 alone and together with P39 for decolonizing CRKP using mouse intestinal colonization models. Bacterial load shed decrease significantly in mice treated with P24 and P39. In conclusion, we report the characterization of two previously unidentified lytic phages against CRKP, revealing phage resistance mechanisms and demonstrating the potential of lytic phages for intestinal decolonization.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261332
Kenji Hibiya ◽  
Hiroyoshi Iwata ◽  
Takeshi Kinjo ◽  
Akira Shinzato ◽  
Masao Tateyama ◽  

Recent reports indicate that respiratory infectious diseases were suppressed during the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 led to behavioral changes aimed to control droplet transmission or contact transmission. In this study, we examined the incidence of common infectious diseases in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 data were extracted from the national data based on the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases (NESID). Common infectious diseases were selected from notifiable infectious diseases under the NESID. The epidemic activity of the diseases during 2015–2020 was evaluated based on the Infectious Disease Weekly Reports published by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases. Each disease was then categorized according to the route of transmission. Many Japanese people had adopted hygienic activities, such as wearing masks and hand washing, even before the COVID-19 pandemic. We examined the correlation between the time-series of disease counts of common infectious diseases and COVID-19 over time using cross-correlation analysis. The weekly number of cases of measles, rotavirus, and several infections transmitted by droplet spread, was negatively correlated with the weekly number of cases of COVID-19 for up to 20 weeks in the past. According to the difference-in-differences analysis, the activity of influenza and rubella was significantly lower starting from the second week in 2020 than that in 2015–2019. Only legionellosis was more frequent throughout the year than in 2015–2019. Lower activity was also observed in some contact transmitted, airborne-transmitted, and fecal-oral transmitted diseases. However, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, exanthema subitum, showed the same trend as that over the previous 5 years. In conclusion, our study shows that public health interventions for the COVID-19 pandemic may have effectively prevented the transmission of most droplet-transmitted diseases and those transmitted through other routes.

Yu-Tsung Huang ◽  
Yao-Wen Kuo ◽  
Nan-Yao Lee ◽  
Ni Tien ◽  
Chun-Hsing Liao ◽  

Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) are emerging worldwide, causing nosocomial outbreaks and even community-acquired infections since their appearance 2 decades ago. Our previous national surveillance of CPE isolates in Taiwan identified five carbapenemase families (KPC, OXA, NDM, VIM, and IMP) with the KPC-2 and OXA-48-like types predominant.

Eve A. Maunders ◽  
Katherine Ganio ◽  
Andrew J. Hayes ◽  
Stephanie L. Neville ◽  
Mark R. Davies ◽  

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a leading cause of healthcare-associated infections, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and sepsis. Treatment of K. pneumoniae infections is becoming increasingly challenging due to high levels of antibiotic resistance and the rising prevalence of carbapenem-resistant, extended-spectrum β-lactamases producing strains.

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