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2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 101074
Junzhi Zhou ◽  
Qian Liang ◽  
Maogong Dong ◽  
Xiaohe Ma ◽  
Yaqi Jin ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 354 ◽  
pp. 131129
Yong Zhang ◽  
Xueqian Chen ◽  
Qing Yuan ◽  
Yongning Bian ◽  
Mingrui Li ◽  

2022 ◽  
Kerri L Miazgowicz ◽  
Judith Mary Reyes Ballista ◽  
Marissa D Acciani ◽  
Ariana R Jimenez ◽  
Ryan S Belloli ◽  

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family, is the causative agent of the human disease chikungunya fever (CHIKF), which is characterized by debilitating acute and chronic arthralgia. No licensed vaccines or antivirals exist for CHIKV. Preventing the attachment of viral particles to host cells is an attractive intervention strategy. Viral entry of enveloped viruses from diverse families including Filoviridae and Flaviviridae is mediated or enhanced by phosphatidylserine receptors (PSRs). PSRs facilitate the attachment of enveloped viruses to cells by binding to exposed phosphatidylserine (PS) in the viral lipid membrane - a process termed viral apoptotic mimicry. To investigate the role of viral apoptotic mimicry during CHIKV infection, we produced viral particles with discrete amounts of exposed PS on the virion envelope by exploiting the cellular distribution of phospholipids at the plasma membrane. We found that CHIKV particles containing high outer leaflet PS (produced in cells lacking flippase activity) were more infectious in Vero cells than particles containing low levels of outer leaflet PS (produced in cells lacking scramblase activity). However, the same viral particles were similarly infectious in NIH3T3 and HAP1 cells, suggesting PS levels can influence infectivity only in cells with high levels of PSRs. Interestingly, PS-dependent CHIKV entry was observed in mosquito Aag2 cells, but not C6/36 cells. These data demonstrate that CHIKV entry via viral apoptotic mimicry is cell-type dependent. Furthermore, viral apoptotic mimicry has a mechanistic basis to influence viral dynamics in vivo in both the human and mosquito host.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 510
Angela F Danil de Namor ◽  
Nawal Al Hakawati ◽  
Sami Y Farhat

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a disease which is causing a high degree of mortality around the world. The present study reports the antiproliferative impact of the thioacetamide calix[4]arene, CAII receptor on a highly differentiated Caco-2 cell line. This statement is corroborated by the MTT assay results which revealed a reduction in the cell viability with an IC50 value of 19.02 ± 0.04 µM. Microscopic results indicated that at the starting amount of 10 µM of CAII, a decrease in cells confluency can already be observed in addition to changes in cells morphology. Cell metabolic pathway changes were also investigated. 1H NMR findings showed downregulation in lactate, pyruvate, phosphocholine, lipids, and hydroxybutyrate with the upregulation of succinate, indicating a decline in the cells proliferation. Some biochemical alterations in the cells as a result of the CAII treatment were found by Raman spectroscopy.

2022 ◽  
Giulia Ada Corbet ◽  
James M Burke ◽  
Gaia Rachel Bublitz ◽  
Roy Parker

Mammalian cells respond to dsRNA in multiple manners. One key response to dsRNA is the activation of PKR, an eIF2α kinase, which triggers translational arrest and the formation of stress granules. However, the process of PKR activation in cells is not fully understood. In response to increased endogenous or exogenous dsRNA, we observed that PKR forms novel cytosolic condensates, referred to as dsRNA-induced foci (dRIFs). dRIFs contain dsRNA, form in proportion to dsRNA, and are enhanced by longer dsRNAs. dRIFs also enrich several other dsRNA-binding proteins including ADAR1, Stau1, NLRP1, and PACT. Strikingly, dRIFs correlate with and form prior to translation repression by PKR and localize to regions of cells where PKR activation is initiated. We suggest that dRIF formation is a mechanism cells utilize to enhance the sensitivity of PKR activation in response to low levels of dsRNA, or to overcome viral inhibitors of PKR activation.

2022 ◽  
Maria Fernanda Fernandes ◽  
John Zewen Chan ◽  
Chia Chun Joey Hung ◽  
Michelle Victoria Tomczewski ◽  
Robin Elaine Duncan

Aims: To study effects on cellular innate immune responses to novel genes ORF8 and ORF10, and the more conserved Membrane protein (M protein) from the Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes COVID-19, either alone, or in combination with cannabidiol (CBD). Main Methods: HEK293 cells were transfected with a control plasmid, or plasmids expressing ORF8, ORF10, or M protein, and assayed for cell number and markers of apoptosis at 24 h, and expression of interferon and interferon-stimulated genes at 14 h. Key findings: A significant reduction in cell number, and increase in early and late apoptosis, was found after 24 h in cells where expression of viral genes was combined with 1-2 μM CBD treatment, but not in control-transfected cells treated with CBD, or in cells expressing viral genes but treated only with vehicle. CBD (2 μM) augmented expression of IFNγ, IFNλ1 and IFNλ2/3, as well as the 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) family members OAS1, OAS2, OAS3, and OASL, in cells expressing ORF8, ORF10, and M protein. CBD also augmented expression of these genes in control cells not expressing viral genes, without enhancing apoptosis. Significance: Our results demonstrate a poor ability of HEK293 cells to respond to SARS-CoV-2 genes alone, but suggest an augmented innate anti-viral response to these genes in the presence of CBD. Furthermore, our results indicate that CBD may prime components of the innate immune system, increasing readiness to respond to viral infection without activating apoptosis, and therefore could be studied for potential in prophylaxis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Katarina Persson ◽  
Ulrika Petersson ◽  
Charlotte Johansson ◽  
Isak Demirel ◽  
Robert Kruse

AbstractUropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) may undergo a cyclic cascade of morphological alterations that are believed to enhance the potential of UPEC to evade host responses and re-infect host cell. However, knowledge on the pathogenic potential and host activation properties of UPEC during the morphological switch is limited. Microarray analysis was performed on mRNA isolated from human bladder epithelial cells (HBEP) after exposure to three different morphological states of UPEC (normal coliform, filamentous form and reverted form). Cells stimulated with filamentous bacteria showed the lowest number of significant gene alterations, although the number of enriched gene ontology classes was high suggesting diverse effects on many different classes of host genes. The normal coliform was in general superior in stimulating transcriptional activity in HBEP cells compared to the filamentous and reverted form. Top-scored gene entities activated by all three morphological states included IL17C, TNFAIP6, TNF, IL20, CXCL2, CXCL3, IL6 and CXCL8. The number of significantly changed canonical pathways was lower in HBEP cells stimulated with the reverted form (32 pathways), than in cells stimulated with the coliform (83 pathways) or filamentous bacteria (138 pathways). A host cell invasion assay showed that filamentous bacteria were unable to invade bladder cells, and that the number of intracellular bacteria was markedly lower in cells infected with the reverted form compared to the coliform. In conclusion, the morphological state of UPEC has major impact on the host bladder response both when evaluating the number and the identity of altered host genes and pathways.

Jan Heering ◽  
Victor Hernandez-Olmos ◽  
Niklas Ildefeld ◽  
Ting Liu ◽  
Anja Kaiser ◽  

Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 25
Tatiana Kalinina ◽  
Vladislav Kononchuk ◽  
Lyubov Klyushova ◽  
Lyudmila Gulyaeva

Many studies have shown that dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exposure raises breast cancer risk. Another insecticide with similar properties is endosulfan, which has been actively used in agriculture after DDT prohibition. Previously, we have identified some estradiol-, progesterone-, and testosterone-sensitive microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs). Because DDT and endosulfan have estrogenic, antiandrogenic, and antiprogesterone properties, we hypothesized that these miRNAs are affected by the insecticides. We quantified relative levels of miRNAs and expression levels of their target genes in breast cancer MCF-7 cells treated with p,p′-DDT, o,p′-DDT, or endosulfan. We also quantified miR-19b expression, which, as previously shown, is regulated by estrogen. Here, we observed that miR-19b expression increased in response not only to estradiol but also to testosterone and progesterone. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with p,p′-DDT or endosulfan decreased the protein levels of apoptosis regulators TP53INP1 and APAF1. In cells treated with o,p′-DDT, the TP53INP1 amount decreased after 24 h of incubation, but increased after 48 h of incubation with insecticide. OXTR expression, which is known to be associated with breast carcinogenesis, significantly diminished under the exposure of all insecticides. In cells treated with p,p′-DDT or o,p′-DDT, the observed changes were accompanied by alterations of the levels of hormone-responsive miRNAs: miR-324, miR-190a, miR-190b, miR-27a, miR-193b, and miR-19b.

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