feed conversion
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
Author(s):  
N. Ahmad ◽  
S. M. Hussain ◽  
S. M. Azam ◽  
M. M. Shahzad ◽  
A. Noureen ◽  
...  

Abstract The aim of the present study is to assess the effects of selenium nanoparticles on the growth, hematology and nutrients digestibility of Labeorohita fingerlings. Fingerlings were fed with seven isocaloric sunflower meal-based diet supplemented with different concentrations of nanoparticles naming T1 to T7 (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 mg/kg), with 5% wet body weight while chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. After experimentation for 90 days T3 treated group (1mg/kg -1Se-nano level) showed the best result in hematological parameters (WBC’s 7.97 ×103mm-3, RBC’s 2.98 ×106 mm-3 and Platelet count 67), nutrient digestibility (crude protein: 74%, ether extract: 76%, gross energy: 70%) and growth performance (weight gain 13.24 g, weight gain% 198, feed conversion ratio 1.5, survival rate 100%) as compared to the other treatment groups. Specific growth rates were found significantly higher in T5 than in other groups. The present study indicated positive effect of 1 mg/kg Se-nanoparticles on growth advancement, hematological parameters, and nutrients digestibility of L. rohita fingerlings.


Author(s):  
Dermeval A. Furtado ◽  
Ladyanne R. Rodrigues ◽  
Valéria P. Rodrigues ◽  
Neila L. Ribeiro ◽  
Rafael C. Silva ◽  
...  

ABSTRACT The supply of salt water in the semiarid region is a recurrent practice, as there is a severe shortage of water for use in animal consumption. Thus, most of the times the water offered to the birds can contain salts above the recommended amount. The present study aimed to evaluate the production performance and morphometry of the organs of Japanese quails as they were supplied with drinking water with different concentrations of sodium chloride, while being maintained in comfort and under thermal stress. The birds received water with increasing electrical conductivity (1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 dS m-1) and were kept in a climate chamber at thermoneutral air temperature (24 °C) and under thermal stress (32 °C), being distributed in a completely randomized design and 2 × 4 factorial scheme. Water electrical conductivities did not affect the performance of the birds, except for the weight of the gizzard, which showed an increasing linear effect as the electrical conductivities increased. At the stress temperature, there was reduction in feed intake, egg weight and mass, and in feed conversion per dozen eggs, but with no effect on the weights of the heart, liver and gizzard. Japanese quails in the production phase can consume water with electrical conductivity of up to 6.0 dS m-1, showing good production performance and without compromising organ morphometry.


2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
B. Ahmad ◽  
S. M. Hussain ◽  
S. Ali ◽  
M. Zubair-ul-Hassan Arsalan ◽  
S. Tabassum ◽  
...  

Abstract The growth of aquaculture sector is strongly dependent upon the continuous supply of inexpensive fish feed with balanced nutritional profile. However, fish meal (FM) is unable to satisfy this demand due to its scarce supply and high cost. In order to test the potential of cottonseed meal (CSM) as a fish meal replacer, a feeding trial of 12 weeks was conducted to check growth performance and proximate composition of Labeo rohita fingerlings. The protein ration of the test feed was satisfied by replacing FM with CSM at 0, 25, 50 and 75%. Sixteen test diets viz., TD1 (control), TD2, TD3, TD4, TD5, TD6, TD7, TD8, TD9, TD10, TD11, TD12, TD13, TD14, TD15 and TD16 were supplemented with citric acid (CA; 0 and 2.5%) and phytase (PHY; 0 and 750 FTU/kg) in a completely randomized design with 3×3 factorial arrangement. The highest weight gain (11.03g), weight gain% (249.21%), specific growth rate (1.39) and best feed conversion ratio (1.20) were recorded by fish fed with TD12. Furthermore, the same level increased the crude protein (59.26%) and fat (16.04%) being significantly different (p<0.05) than that of control. Conclusively, the addition of acidified phytase (CA; 2.5%, PHY; 750 FTU/kg) in TD12 (CSM=50%) led to the improved growth and proximate composition of L. rohita fingerlings.


2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
Author(s):  
M. Farid ◽  
N. Khan ◽  
M. Fatima ◽  
F. Rasool ◽  
H. Azmat ◽  
...  

Abstract The present study aimed to determine the effect of different levels of protein on the growth, body composition, amino acid profile and serology of Channa marulius fingerlings. The experiment was conducted in ten happas installed in earthen ponds, each stocked with 10 fishes for 90 days. Four commercial fish feeds having 25%, 30%, 32% and 40% crude protein (CP) levels were fed to fish at 3% of their wet body weight three times a day. The results of the study revealed that highest weight gain, feed conversion ratio and survival rate were observed in 30% protein feed. Meanwhile, moisture content was higher in fish fed with 30% CP feed while highest crude protein was recorded in 40% CP fed fish. Lowest fat content was observed in 32% CP feed. Amino acid profile of fish revealed better results in 30% CP feed. Total protein, glucose and globulin were also highest in fish feeding 30% CP feed, while albumin was highest in 40% CP feed. It is concluded that 30% CP feed showed better results in terms of growth, amino acid profile and serological parameters without effecting fish body composition.


2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 599-610
Author(s):  
Valéria Pereira Rodrigues ◽  
◽  
Dermeval Araújo Furtado ◽  
Neila Lidiany Ribeiro ◽  
Ladyanne Raia Rodrigues ◽  
...  

The objective was to evaluate the increasing levels of magnesium in the water supplied to laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica), kept in climatic chambers under thermoneutral temperature and thermal stress, on their performance and morphometry of their organs. The birds were distributed in a completely randomized design, 2x4 factorial arrangement, 2 temperatures (24 and 32 ºC) and 4 levels of magnesium in the water (50, 150, 250 and 350 mg L-1), with six replicates and eight birds per experimental unit. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and the means compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability level. The magnesium levels in the water did not affect (P > 0.05) the production performance and morphometry of the organs, with less water consumption at the magnesium level of 150 mg L-1, and birds kept at 32 °C had a reduction in feed consumption and feed conversion, but without affecting organ morphometry. Japanese quails in the production phase can consume water with magnesium levels up to 350 mg L-1 without having their production performance and morphometry of organs affected and raised in an environment with temperatures of up to 32 °C.


2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. e06SC01-e06SC01
Author(s):  
Natalia C. Aguiar ◽  

Aim of study: To evaluate the effects of increasing NaCl levels on the zootechnical performance of pacu fingerling. Area of study: The experiments were conducted at the Aquatic Organism Production and Reproduction Systems Laboratory belonging to the Federal University of Paraná (UFPR), in the Palotina Sector, Paraná Estate, Brazil. Material and methods: Seven hundred and fifty fingerlings with an average weight of 3.41 ± 0.09 g were distributed in circular boxes, in a completely randomized design consisting of six treatments and five replications. Treatments comprised soybean- and maize-based diets containing increasing levels of NaCl (0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25%). The experiments were conducted for 50 days. At the end of the experimental period the fish were fasted for 24 hours, anesthetized, weighed and measured to calculate zootechnical performances. Performance data were subjected to an analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s test when significant differences were found between the means (p<0.05). Main results: The influence (p<0.05) of dietary NaCl levels on final weight, feed intake, apparent feed conversion, specific growth rate, average weight gain, clean trunk production, head carcass yield, headless carcass yield, feed intake and survival was assessed. The results indicate that non-salt treated fingerlings along with the 0.25% salt inclusion treatment led to better feed use, as evidenced by apparent feed conversions of 1.64 and 2.02, respectively. Research highlights: The inclusion of NaCl in pacu fingerling soybean and maize-based diets is not recommended.


2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
R. Vega-Aguayo ◽  
C. Drake ◽  
V. Guzmán ◽  
A. Mardones ◽  
I. Valdebenito ◽  
...  

Abstract Galaxias maculatus aquaculture objectives is to produce millions of eggs. Wild females are small (2 g), have quick sexual maturity and low mean fecundity (500 eggs/female), requiring larger fishes with higher fecundity. This study aim is to evaluate experimentally the effect of the levels of protein, lipid and dietary energy on weight increases in adults. Five independent experiments were performed at different sequential time periods at the UCT hatchery, Chile. Specimens were obtained from a) Crystalline sea return specimen catches in the Tolten estuary (4 -6 cm, 0.3-0.4 g.). b) Hatchery cultured fish. Fish were fed by hand ad libitum. In experiments 1 to 4, pelleted diets were prepared with 3 to 5 levels of protein (treatments 27 up to 57%), crumble size, three 100 L fibre ponds replicates. In experiment 5 the effect of two lipid levels (8 and 21%) was evaluated with commercial extruded Salmon Nutra Starter isoproteic crumble 1 diet at 63%, replicated in 4 ponds. The results show: A tendency to increased weight in all sizes with an increased protein level in the pelleted diet.A maximal adult growth is obtained with a diet containing a minimum of 37% crude protein, with 40% the optimal value. A higher % protein in the diet or growth in weight lower feed conversion ratio. The feed conversion ratio in the extruded diet reaches up to 0.5 and in the pelleted vary from 0.7 to 1.5. Fish 0.6 g fed with 63% protein, extruded commercial diet with two different lipid levels (8 and 21%, 20.40 and 23.84 MJ kg-1, PE/TE 0.62 and 0.71) increased weight the first month 67 and 105% each. It has been established that high-energy diets with optimal levels of protein and lipid are a good short-term solution to obtain G. maculatus of higher weight.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hamilton Hisano ◽  
Pamela Souza de Pietro ◽  
Márcia Mayumi Ishikawa ◽  
Alex Júnio da Silva Cardoso ◽  
Arielle Cristina Arena

Abstract This study evaluated the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of crambe meal (CM) and its potential to partially replace soybean meal (SM) protein in Nile tilapia diets. The ADC for dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, energy, amino acids, calcium and phosphorus of CM were assessed in fish (n=80; 65.30 ± 5.32 g). Subsequently, an 80-day feeding trial was conducted with Nile tilapia (n=140; 6.04 ± 0.25 g) randomly distributed in 20 experimental cages (70 L; seven fish cage-1) allocated in five circular tanks (1000 L) in recirculation water system, to evaluate the effects of replacement of SM by CM (0, 6, 12, 18 and 24% in isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets) on growth, blood parameters, fillet yield and proximal composition. The CM shows good digestibility of protein (0.824) and amino acids (0.844) by Nile tilapia and its inclusion in the diet does not affect carcass and fillet yield or proximal composition. Fish fed diets with 24.0% of the SM replaced by CM showed the worst weight gain and feed conversion rate. The protein efficiency ratio decreased in fish fed diets with 12.0, 18.0 and 24.0% of the SM replaced by CM. Hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, total plasma protein, glucose and alanine aminotransferase enzyme activity trend to increase at highest levels of CM in the diet. In conclusion, CM has potential to replace SM in Nile tilapia diets, due to high digestibility of protein and amino acids. However, anti-nutritional factors present in untreated CM interfere on the growth and nutrient utilization of Nile tilapia.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Valery Semenovich Lukashenko ◽  
Irina Pavlovna Saleeva ◽  
Victor Grigorievich Volik ◽  
Dilaram Yuldashevna Ismailova ◽  
Evgenia Vladimirovna Zhuravchuk

The aim of this research was to study the biochemical properties of a new protein-rich feed additive produced by the short-term intense thermal treatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the wastes of poultry slaughter and primary processing (feathers and fluff). It was found that this feather-based fermented feed additive contained high amounts of crude protein (86.52%); and the content of easily digestible low-molecular peptides in the additive was 9% higher compared to fishmeal. The amino acid profiles of the additive and fishmeal were compared. The effectiveness of substituting the additive for fishmeal in the diet of broiler chicks was demonstrated by the in vivoexperiments. The results showed that the digestibility of the dietary nutrients was higher in broilers that were fed the new additive compared to those fed fishmeal, which resulted in higher meat productivity: the average daily weight gains in additive-fed broilers was 3.82% higher (p <0.01) compared to fishmeal-fed control broilers, the dressing was 1.4%higher, the muscle in the carcass was 2.1% higher, and the feed conversion ratio was 3.57%lower. The sensory evaluation scores of the meat and broth were also higher in the additive-fed broilers. Keywords: feedadditive, feather wastes of poultry slaughter, enzymatic hydrolysis, distribution of molecular peptide weights, digestibility, productive performance in broilers


Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 88
Author(s):  
Charlie Tran ◽  
Ian E. Cock ◽  
Xiaojing Chen ◽  
Yunjiang Feng

The agricultural industry utilizes antibiotic growth promoters to promote livestock growth and health. However, the World Health Organization has raised concerns over the ongoing spread of antibiotic resistance transmission in the populace, leading to its subsequent ban in several countries, especially in the European Union. These restrictions have translated into an increase in pathogenic outbreaks in the agricultural industry, highlighting the need for an economically viable, non-toxic, and renewable alternative to antibiotics in livestock. Probiotics inhibit pathogen growth, promote a beneficial microbiota, regulate the immune response of its host, enhance feed conversion to nutrients, and form biofilms that block further infection. Commonly used lactic acid bacteria probiotics are vulnerable to the harsh conditions of the upper gastrointestinal system, leading to novel research using spore-forming bacteria from the genus Bacillus. However, the exact mechanisms behind Bacillus probiotics remain unexplored. This review tackles this issue, by reporting antimicrobial compounds produced from Bacillus strains, their proposed mechanisms of action, and any gaps in the mechanism studies of these compounds. Lastly, this paper explores omics approaches to clarify the mechanisms behind Bacillus probiotics.


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