Frontiers in Veterinary Science
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Updated Saturday, 27 November 2021

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Francesca De Falco ◽  
Anna Cutarelli ◽  
Nicola D'Alessio ◽  
Pellegrino Cerino ◽  
Cornel Catoi ◽  
...  

Ovine papillomaviruses (OaPVs) were detected and quantified, for the first time, using droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) via blood samples of 165 clinically healthy sheep. OaPV DNA was detected in 126 blood samples (~76.4%). DdPCR detected OaPV DNA in 124 samples; in only two additional samples positive for real-time qPCR, ddPCR failed to detect the presence of any OaPVs. In 70 of the positive samples (~55.6%), a single OaPV infection was observed, 12 of which were caused by OaPV1 (~17.1%) and 14 by OaPV2 (20%). OaPV3 was responsible for 19 single infections (~27.1%), and OaPV4 for 25 single infections (~35.7%). Multiple OaPV coinfections were observed in 56 (~44.4%) positive samples. OaPV coinfections caused by two genotypes were observed in 31 positive samples (~55.4%), with dual OaPV3/OaPV4 infection being the most prevalent as seen in 11 blood samples. In addition, five OaPV1/OaPV4, four OaPV1/OaPV2, four OaPV2/OaPV3, four OaPV1/OaPV3, and three OaPV2/OaPV4 dual coinfections were also detected. OaPV coinfections by triple and quadruple genotypes were detected in 24 (~42.8%) and only one (~1.8%) of coinfected blood samples, respectively. Multiple infections caused by OaPV1/OaPV3/OaPV4 genotypes were the most prevalent, as observed in 12 (50%) blood samples harboring triple OaPV infections. This study showed that ddPCR is the most sensitive and accurate assay for OaPV detection and quantification thus outperforming real-time qPCR in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, ddPCR may represent the molecular diagnostic tool of choice, ultimately providing useful insights into OaPV molecular epidemiology and field surveillance.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ratree Takhampunya ◽  
Jira Sakolvaree ◽  
Nitima Chanarat ◽  
Nittayaphon Youngdech ◽  
Kritsawan Phonjatturas ◽  
...  

Ticks are known vectors for a variety of pathogens including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. In this study, bacterial communities were investigated in active life stages of three tick genera (Haemaphysalis, Dermacentor, and Amblyomma) collected from Khao Yai National Park in Thailand. Four hundred and thirty-three questing ticks were selected for pathogen detection individually using real-time PCR assays, and 58 of these were subjected to further metagenomics analysis. A total of 62 ticks were found to be infected with pathogenic bacteria, for a 14.3% prevalence rate, with Amblyomma spp. exhibiting the highest infection rate (20.5%), followed by Haemaphysalis spp. (14.5%) and Dermacentor spp. (8.6%). Rickettsia spp. were the most prevalent bacteria (7.9%) found, followed by Ehrlichia spp. (3.2%), and Anaplasma spp. and Borrelia spp. each with a similar prevalence of 1.6%. Co-infection between pathogenic bacteria was only detected in three Haemaphysalis females, and all co-infections were between Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae (Ehrlichia spp. or Anaplasma spp.), accounting for 4.6% of infected ticks or 0.7% of all examined questing ticks. The prevalence of the Coxiella-like endosymbiont was also investigated. Of ticks tested, 65.8% were positive for the Coxiella-like endosymbiont, with the highest infection rate in nymphs (86.7%), followed by females (83.4%). Among tick genera, Haemaphysalis exhibited the highest prevalence of infection with the Coxiella-like endosymbiont. Ticks harboring the Coxiella-like endosymbiont were more likely to be infected with Ehrlichia spp. or Rickettsia spp. than those without, with statistical significance for Ehrlichia spp. infection in particular (p-values = 0.003 and 0.917 for Ehrlichia spp. and Rickettsia spp., respectively). Profiling the bacterial community in ticks using metagenomics revealed distinct, predominant bacterial taxa in tick genera. Alpha and beta diversities analyses showed that the bacterial community diversity and composition in Haemaphysalis spp. was significantly different from Amblyomma spp. However, when examining bacterial diversity among tick life stages (larva, nymph, and adult) in Haemaphysalis spp., no significant difference among life stages was detected. These results provide valuable information on the bacterial community composition and co-infection rates in questing ticks in Thailand, with implications for animal and human health.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Eugenio Faroni ◽  
Silvia Sabattini ◽  
Jacopo Lenzi ◽  
Dina Guerra ◽  
Stefano Comazzi ◽  
...  

Surgery-induced stress and anesthesia-related immunosuppression are believed to play a critical role in human oncology patients. Studies have hypothesized that anesthesia influences patients' outcome, promoting tumor recurrence and metastasis. Aim of the study was to investigate whether anesthesia promoted relapse in dogs with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Medical records were searched for dogs with DLBCL, that were in complete remission (CR) after the same chemo-immunotherapy protocol. Dogs receiving anesthesia were included if the procedure was performed while in CR. Time to relapse (TTR) was obtained via Kaplan–Meier method. Association between anesthesia and relapse was assessed using a nested case-control design and estimated using conditional logistic regression. Sixty-one dogs with DLBCL were included. Overall median TTR was 329 days (95% CI, 281–377). Forty-eight (79%) dogs relapsed during the study period, while 13 (21%) were still in CR at data analysis closure. Eighteen (30%) dogs received anesthesia with opioids, propofol, and isoflurane or sevoflurane. The relative risk of lymphoma relapse for dogs undergoing anesthesia was significantly higher compared with dogs not undergoing anesthesia, with an odds ratio of 3.09 (P = 0.019) on multivariable analysis. Anesthesia may promote relapse in dogs with DLBCL treated with chemo-immunotherapy, although a role of perioperative stress cannot be ultimately excluded. Considering the high frequency of anesthetic procedures required for diagnostic and therapeutic protocols among oncology patients, it is of utmost interest to characterize the effects of single anesthetic agents on the immune system. Further prospective studies are needed to better define the impact of anesthesia on patients' outcome.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Julia Hart ◽  
Stefan Rupp ◽  
Katinka Hartmann ◽  
Carolin Fischer ◽  
Pia Düver ◽  
...  

Objective: To objectively assess the cervical paraspinal musculature of French bulldogs (FBs) using computed tomography (CT) scan-based measurements, outline differences in other breeds published in the literature, and investigate the potential influence of its cervical paraspinal musculature on predisposed sites for intervertebral disk disease.Animals: Thirty FBs that underwent CT scans of the cervical spine from the skull to C7/T1 were enrolled. Fifteen dogs were patients suffering from intervertebral disk herniation (IVDH group), and 15 dogs underwent CT scans due to brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS group).Methods: At the level of each cervical intervertebral disk from C2/C3 to C7/T1, measurements were performed and statistically analyzed. On the sagittal CT scan reconstruction, the height ratio of the dorsal to ventral paraspinal musculature and the angle of the disk axis to vertebral body length were assessed. On the transverse plane, the area ratio of the dorsal and ventral paraspinal musculature and the ratio of force moments were determined at each intervertebral disk level. Finally, ratios were compared to the values of Labrador retrievers and dachshunds published by Hartmann et al. (1).Results: Comparing the two FB groups, one significant difference was detected in the mean height ratio of the dorsal to ventral paraspinal musculature at the level of C5/C6 (P = 0.0092) and C6/C7 (P = 0.0076), with IVDH FBs having the more prominent dorsal paraspinal musculature. At the level of C3/C4, a significantly less prominent dorsal paraspinal musculature in FBs than in dachshunds (P = 0.0058) and a significantly steeper disk to vertebral body angulation were observed (P = 0.0005).Conclusion: Although some incidental differences were found, most parameters did not significantly differ between the BOAS and IVDH FBs. Significant conformational differences in the cervical paraspinal musculature and disk to vertebral body length angulation were found between FBs and two other breeds (chondrodystrophic and non-chondrodystrophic). This study's findings suggest that the paraspinal musculature is an additional biomechanical influencing factor on the preferential sites of IVDH in the cervical spine and that other major factors exist in IVDH development, especially in FBs.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Martina Načeradská ◽  
Kateřina Návojová Horáčková ◽  
Michaela Fridrichová

A 6-month-old kitten, male, domestic shorthair cat was presented with dwarfism, ocular and nasal discharge, and Ascaris infestation. Congenital hyposomatotropism was diagnosed on the basis of serum level of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I). The cat was treated with human recombinant growth hormone for 9 weeks. After that, his liver enzymes became elevated, and the therapy was discontinued. His IGF-I levels were normal at the end of the therapy. Normal IGF-I was present 3 months after discontinuation of therapy with human recombinant growth hormone and even half a year after the discontinuation. All other comorbidities were addressed with the therapy. The cat is now the size of normal cats, living with the first author.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xiangyu Wang ◽  
Xiaofei Guo ◽  
Xiaoyun He ◽  
Qiuyue Liu ◽  
Ran Di ◽  
...  

The Booroola fecundity gene (FecB) has a mutation that was found to increase the ovulation rate and litter size in Booroola Merino sheep. This mutation is also associated with the fecundity of small-tail han (STH) sheep, an important maternal breed used to produce hybrid offspring for mutton production in China. Previous research showed that the FecB gene affects reproduction in STH sheep, based on litter size records. However, the effects of this gene on estrus, ovulation, and endocrine characteristics in these sheep remain unclear. Here, we analyzed the traits mentioned earlier and compared them among the three FecB genotypes of STH ewes using estrus synchronization. Overall, 53 pluriparous ewes were selected from among 890 STH ewes and subjected to FecB genotyping for experiments to characterize estrous and ovulation rates. FecB heterozygous (+B) ewes presented an earlier onset of estrus (42.9 ± 2.2 h) and a shorter estrous cycle (17.2 ± 0.2 days) (P ≤ 0.05). The ovulation rates increased with the increasing copy number of the B allele (P ≤ 0.01). Ovulation time showed no significant differences among the three FecB genotypes. The serum concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone, estrogen (E2), and progesterone (P4) were measured in 19 of the ewes. Serum concentrations of E2 and FSH dramatically varied around the time of behavioral estrus. In FecB mutant homozygous (BB) ewes, E2 concentration had two peaks, which were higher (P ≤ 0.05) than those of ++ genotypes. FSH concentration of BB ewes was higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that of the ++ ewes just after estrus. The expression of the estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) gene in the +B genotype was higher than in the other genotypes. Based on the data for the reproductive performance of STH ewes with the three FecB genotypes, our study suggests that the development of follicles in ewes with the B allele is dependent on the response to FSH regulated by E2 in the early stage. +B ewes, exhibiting moderate ovulation and litter size and a shorter estrous cycle, can be highly recommended in sheep crossbreeding systems for commercial mutton production. Moreover, this study provides useful information to conserve better and use the genetic resources of STH sheep in China.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xiaopeng Tang ◽  
Xuguang Liu ◽  
Hu Liu

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with or without Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) on carcass traits, meat quality, amino acids, and fatty acids of broiler chickens. In total, 160 1-day-old Arbor Acres male broiler chicks were divided into two groups with eight replicates of 10 chicks each. Chickens received basal diets without (CN group) or with 500 mg/kg B. subtilis (BS group) for 42 days. Eight chickens from each group were slaughtered at the end of the trial, and carcass traits, meat quality, chemical composition, amino acid, and fatty acid profile of meat were measured. The results showed that the breast muscle (%) was higher in BS than in CN (p < 0.05), while abdominal fat decreased (p < 0.05). The pH24h of thigh muscle was increased (p < 0.05) when supplemented with BS; however, drip loss, cooking loss of breast muscle, and shear force of thigh muscle decreased (p < 0.05). Lysine (Lys), methionine (Met), glutamic acid (Glu), and total essential amino acid (EAA) in breast muscle and Glu in thigh muscle were greater in BS than in CN (p < 0.05). C16:1, C18:1n9c, and MUFA in breast muscle and thigh muscle were greater in BS than in CN (p < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation with B. subtilis could improve the carcass traits and meat quality of broilers, which is beneficial for the consumers due to the improved fatty acid profile and amino acid composition.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yaru Mu ◽  
Quan Xie ◽  
Weikang Wang ◽  
Hao Lu ◽  
Mingjun Lian ◽  
...  

Currently, a fatal disease of hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS) caused by serotype 4 fowl adenovirus (FAdV-4) has spread worldwide and resulted in tremendous economic losses to the poultry industry. Various vaccines against FAdV-4 were developed to control the disease; however, few live-attenuated vaccines were available. In this study, we targeted the N-terminal of fiber-1 and rescued a recombinant virus FAdV4-RFP_F1 expressing the fusion protein of RFP and Fiber-1 based on the CRISPR/Cas9 technique. In vitro studies showed that FAdV4-RFP_F1 replicated slower than the wild type FAdV-4, but the peak viral titer of FAdV4-RFP_F1 could still reach 107.0 TCID50/ml with high stability in LMH cells. Animal studies found that FAdV4-RFP_F1 not only was highly attenuated to the 2-week-old SPF chickens, but could also provide efficient protection against lethal challenge of FAdV-4. All these demonstrate that the recombinant virus FAdV4-RFP_F1 could be as an efficient live-attenuated vaccine candidate for FAdV-4, and the N-terminal of fiber-1 could be as a potential insertion site for expressing foreign genes to develop FAdV-4-based vaccine.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nai-Chao Diao ◽  
Zi-Yang Chen ◽  
Jun-Feng Shi ◽  
Qi Wang ◽  
Chen-Yan Sheng ◽  
...  

Background: Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea. It can infect cattle, sheep, pigs, and other animals, causing diarrhea, miscarriage, and stillbirth, among other symptoms, and it can result in huge economic losses to animal husbandry. There are reports on BVDV infection rates in sheep and goat herds from all over the world and this meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the prevalence of and risk factors for BVDV in sheep and goats.Results: Using the data of 41,297 sheep and goats in 24 countries/regions to calculate a comprehensive prevalence rate for BVDV. The overall prevalence of BVDV infection in sheep and goats was estimated to be 8.6% (95% CI: 5.2–12.7) by immunological methods and 7.3% (95% CI: 2.7–13.7) by molecular methods. Analysis by national income level revealed that prevalence is higher in middle-income countries than in high-income countries (P < 0.05). The study also compared prevalence rates by species of BVDV, sampling year, and test species, but did not find significant differences.Conclusion: This systematic review and meta-analysis is the first to determine the global prevalence of BVDV in ovine and caprine flocks. The prevalence of BVDV in sheep and goat populations varies from region to region, and the situation is not optimistic in some countries.


2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Author(s):  
Tooba Maqsood ◽  
Khuram Shahzad ◽  
Shumaila Naz ◽  
Sami Simsek ◽  
Muhammad Sohail Afzal ◽  
...  

Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan that infects warm-blooded animals and humans. Approximately one third of the global population is infected by T. gondii. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the risk factors and One Health knowledge of toxoplasmosis in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. From July through December 2020, we collected data using questionnaires. The results showed that 60% of participants had heard or read about the disease, 23.3% of participants had no knowledge about the disease, and 16.8% participants were not sure about the disease. More than half of the participants (53.3%) reported that toxoplasmosis was caused by toxins, 5.3% reported that toxoplasmosis was an animal disease, 13.8% reported that toxoplasmosis was a human disease, 65.8% reported that it was both an animal and human disease, and 15.3% reported that it was neither an animal nor a human disease. Approximately 80.5% of participants reported that individuals acquired toxoplasmosis by changing cat litter. Our study findings revealed a low level of knowledge and awareness about toxoplasmosis among males. Therefore, there should be awareness programs to educate individuals about the risks of this deadly disease and to provide information on the major routes of transmission.


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