leaf blight
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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
S. N. Yazid ◽  
K. Ahmad ◽  
M. S. F. A. Razak ◽  
Z. A. Rahman ◽  
K. Ramachandran ◽  

Abstract Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) is one of the major rice diseases in Malaysia. This disease causes substantial yield loss as high as 70%. Development of rice varieties which inherited BLB resistant traits is a crucial approach to promote and sustain rice industry in Malaysia. Hence, this study aims were to enhance BLB disease resistant characters of high yielding commercial variety MR219 through backcross breeding approach with supporting tool of marker-assisted selection (MAS). Broad spectrum BLB resistance gene, Xa7 from donor parent IRBB7 were introgressed into the susceptible MR219 (recurrent parent) using two flanking markers ID7 and ID15. At BC3F4, we managed to generate 19 introgressed lines with homozygous Xa7 gene and showed resistant characteristics as donor parent when it was challenged with Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae through artificial inoculation. Recurrent parent MR219 and control variety, MR263 were found to be severely infected by the disease. The improved lines exhibited similar morphological and yield performance characters as to the elite variety, MR219. Two lines, PB-2-107 and PB-2-34 were chosen to be potential lines because of their outstanding performances compared to parent, MR219. This study demonstrates a success story of MAS application in development of improved disease resistance lines of rice against BLB disease.

Plant Disease ◽  
2022 ◽  
Xiaosheng Zhao ◽  
Chaorong Meng ◽  
Xiang-Yu Zeng ◽  
Zaifu Yang ◽  
Xue-Jun Pan

Magnolia grandiflora is a widely cultivated ornamental tree in China. In June 2020, a leaf blight disease was observed on M. grandiflora in Guizhou University (26° 44' 57'' N, 106° 65' 94'' E) in Guiyang, China. The initial symptoms on leaves were expanding round necrotic lesions with a grey center and dark brown edge, and twigs were withered when the disease was serious. Of the 100 plants surveyed 65% had symptoms. To isolate the potential causal pathogen, diseased leaves were collected from an M. grandiflora tree at Guizhou University. Isolations from made form the junction between healthy and symptomatic tissue and disinfested by immersing in 75% ethanol for 30 seconds, 3% NaOCl for 2 minutes, and then washed 3 times in sterile distilled water. Symptomatic tissue was then plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and incubated at 25ºC with 12-hour light for 3–5 days. Three isolates (GUCC 21235.1, GUCC 21235.2 and GUCC 21235.3) were obtained. Colonies on PDA after 7 d were dark brown, pycnidia embedded in the mydelium were dark brown to black, single and separated. Conidiophores were transparent measuring 7–12.5 × 2.5–4.5 µm (mean = 9.5 × 3.6 µm, n = 30) in length. Conidia were transparent becoming brown when mature with a diaphragm, with round ends measuring, 21–27 × 10–15 µm (mean = 23.6 × 12.6 µm, n = 30). To confirm the pathogen by molecular characterization, four genes or DNA fragments, ITS, LSU, tef1 and β-tubulin, were amplified using the following primer pairs: ITS4-F/ ITS5-R (White et al., 1990), LR0R/ LR5 (Rehner & Samuels, 1994), EF1-688F/ EF1-986R (Carbone & Kohn, 1999) and Bt2a/ Bt2b (O'Donnell & Cigelnik, 1997). The sequences of four PCR fragments of GUCC 21235.1 were deposited in GenBank, and the accession numbers were MZ519778 (ITS), MZ520367 (LSU), MZ508428 (tef1) and MZ542354 (β-tubulin). Bayesian inference was performed based on a concatenated dataset of ITS, LSU, tef1 and β-tubulin gene using MrBayes 3.2.10, and the isolates GUCC 21235.1 formed a single clade with the reference isolates of Diplodia mutila (Diplodia mutila strain CBS 112553). BLASTn analysis indicated that the sequences of ITS, LSU, tef1 and β-tubulin revealed 100% (546/546 nucleotides), 99.82% (568/569 nucleotides), 100% (302/302 nucleotides), and 100% (437/437 nucleotides) similarity with that of D. mutila in GenBank (AY259093, AY928049, AY573219 and DQ458850), respectively. For confirmation of the pathogenicity of this fungus, a conidial suspension (1×105 conidia mL-1) was prepared from GUCC 21235.1, and healthy leaves of M. grandiflora trees were surface-disinfested by 75% ethanol, rinsed with sterilized distilled water and dried by absorbent paper. Small pieces of filter paper (5 mm ×5 mm), dipped with 20 µL conidial suspension (1×105 conidia mL-1) or sterilized distilled water (as control), were placed on the bottom-left of the leaves for inoculation. Then the leaves were sprayed with sterile distilled water, wrapped with a plastic film and tin foil successively to maintain high humidity in the dark dark. After 36 h, the plastic film and tin foil on the leaves was removed, and the leaves were sprayed with distilled water three times each day at natural condition (average temperature was about 25 °C, 14 h light/10 h dark). After 10 days of inoculation, the same leaf blight began to appear on the leaves inoculated with conidial suspension. No lesion was appeared on the control leaves. The fungus was re-isolated from the symptomatic tissue. Based on the morphological information and molecular characterization, the isolate GUCC 21235.1 is D. mutila. Previous reports indicated that D. mutila infects a broad host range and gives rise to a canker disease of olive, apple and jujube (Úrbez-Torres et al., 2013; Úrbez-Torres et al., 2016; Feng et al., 2019). This is the first report of leaf blight on M. grandiflora caused by D. mutila in China.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 293
Mary Ruth McDonald ◽  
Cyril Selasi Tayviah ◽  
Bruce D. Gossen

Aerial surveillance could be a useful tool for early detection and quantification of plant diseases, however, there are often confounding effects of other types of plant stress. Stemphylium leaf blight (SLB), caused by the fungus Stemphylium vesicarium, is a damaging foliar disease of onion. Studies were conducted to determine if near-infrared photographic images could be used to accurately assess SLB severity in onion research trials in the Holland Marsh in Ontario, Canada. The site was selected for its uniform soil and level topography. Aerial photographs were taken in 2015 and 2016 using an Xnite-Canon SX230NDVI with a near-infrared filter, mounted on a modified Cine Star—8 MK Heavy Lift RTF octocopter UAV. Images were taken at 15–20 m above the ground, providing an average of 0.5 cm/pixel and a field of view of 15 × 20 m. Photography and ground assessments of disease were carried out on the same day. NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index), green NDVI, chlorophyll index and plant senescence reflective index (PSRI) were calculated from the images. There were differences in SLB incidence and severity in the field plots and differences in the vegetative indices among the treatments, but there were no correlations between disease assessments and any of the indices.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (3) ◽  
Kapadiya Iteshkumar Bhupatbhai ◽  
Chandrakant Singh ◽  
Pansuriya Ashwin Govindbhai ◽  
Kommeta Mahesh

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 ◽  
Jyoti Gaba ◽  
Sunita Sharma ◽  
Harleen Kaur ◽  
Pardeep Kaur

Background: Thymol is a bioactive compound having many pharmacological activities. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the fungi toxic effects of thymol and derivatives against phytopathogenic fungi of maize. Method: Thymol was derivatized to get formylated thymol, Mannich bases, and imine derivatives. All the synthesized thymol derivatives were characterized by their physical and spectral properties. Synthesized thymol derivatives were screened for their in vitro antifungal effects using poisoned food technique against three maize pathogenic fungi namely Fusarium moniliforme, Rhizoctonia solani and Dreschlera maydis. Results: Thymol and formylated thymol showed promising results for control of D. maydis with ED50 values less than standard carbendazim and comparable to standard mancozeb. These two compounds were further evaluated for control of D. maydis causative maydis leaf blight disease on maize plants grown in the field during the Kharif season (June to October) 2018. Conclusion: Thymol exhibited significant control of maydis leaf blight disease of maize and emerged as a potential alternative to synthetic fungicides used in cereal crops.

Arely Anayansi Vargas-Díaz ◽  
Jairo Cristóbal-Alejo ◽  
Blondy Canto-Canché ◽  
María Marcela Gamboa-Angulo

The chrysanthemum is the second most important cut flower in the world, however, its quality and commercial value is affected by the leaf blight produced by <em>Alternaria </em>spp. The objective of this work was to evaluate the causal agent of leaf blight in Chrysanthemum, and its control with aqueous extracts of <em>Acalypha gaumeri </em>and <em>Bonellia flammea</em>. The fungus was collected and identified from leaves and stems of chrysanthemum plants. Subsequently, molecular identification and pathogenicity tests were performed on chrysanthemum plants. In the field, treatments were evaluated with weekly applications of: T1: <em>B. flammea </em>bark extract, T2: <em>A. gaumeri </em>root extract, T3: negative control (water) and T4: Captan® fungicide. Prior to the application of the treatments, plants were inoculated with the isolated fungus (2.5 × 106 spores mL-1) and severity was evaluated. <em>Alternaria chrysanthemi </em>was identified as the causal agent. Based on the severity percentage, the lowest averages of the area under the disease progress curve, the lowest rates of apparent infection, the lowest intensity of the disease and the greater effectiveness in controlling the disease were observed for T2 (165, 0.017, 8 and 67%, respectively) followed by T1 (186, 0.022, 13 y 50 %, respectively) and T4 (179, 0.023, 14 y 45%, respectively), observing a significantly different than negative control T3 (369, 0.025, 25 and 0%, respectively). Plant extracts have potential to be used as an alternative in the management of <em>Alternaria </em>leaf blight in chrysanthemum.

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