environmental estrogens
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2022 ◽  
Vol 807 ◽  
pp. 150637
Yingxiao Ma ◽  
Wendi Shen ◽  
Tingting Tang ◽  
Zihao Li ◽  
Ruihua Dai

2022 ◽  
Vol 158 ◽  
pp. 106947
Saskia Klutzny ◽  
Marja Kornhuber ◽  
Andrea Morger ◽  
Gilbert Schönfelder ◽  
Andrea Volkamer ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 33 (1) ◽  
Chao Liu ◽  
Chengyu Ni ◽  
Weichu Liu ◽  
Xiaolian Yang ◽  
Renyi Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background Myocardial fibrosis is a critical pathological basis for the poor prognosis of cardiovascular diseases. Studies have found that myocardial fibrosis is closely associated with exposure to environmental estrogens such as nonylphenol (NP), as a representative of environmental estrogens. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of NP chronic exposure on myocardial fibrosis as well as cardiac structure and function. Forty Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10): control group (C), low NP dose (0.4 mg/kg, L), medium NP dose (4 mg/kg, M), and high NP dose (40 mg/kg, H) groups. The NP dose groups were gavaged with NP for 180 days. Results The NP level in the heart of the NP groups was significantly higher than those in the control group (F = 43.658, P < 0.001). Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase isozyme (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and α-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (α-HBDH) significantly increased in the NP groups compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Histopathological examination of the heart biopsy illustrates that in the medium and high NP groups, the fibrous connective tissue had a disordered and loose gridding shape, muscle fibers had fractured, and muscle fibers were loose with a widened gap. Extensive inflammatory cell infiltration and fibroblast proliferation in the myocardial interstitium were also found. With increasing NP dose, the degree of muscle fiber loosing and disorder became more significant in the NP-treatment groups, and the collagen volume fraction (CVF) was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.01). Compared with the control group, the expression of collagen I and collagen III increased significantly in the medium and high NP groups (P < 0.05). The values of the systolic thickness of the left ventricular anterior wall (LVAWs), the diastolic thickness of the left ventricular posterior wall (LVPWd), the systolic thickness of the left ventricular posterior wall (LVPWs), and the left ventricular anterior wall (LVAWd) in the NP groups are were slightly lower than those in of the control group. The values of left ventricular end systolic dimensions (LVIDs) in the NP groups increased compared with the control group. Conclusions Long-term NP exposure could lead to fibrosis in the rat myocardium, which is characterized by increased expressions of myocardial collagen I and collagen III, as well as elevated cardiac enzymes. In addition, the cardiac structure was affected and changes were observed in the thinner ventricular wall and as an enlarged ventricular cavity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 278 ◽  
pp. 116826
Yu Qie ◽  
Weiping Qin ◽  
Keda Zhao ◽  
Chang Liu ◽  
Lixia Zhao ◽  

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (5) ◽  
pp. 1250
Marinella Rosselli ◽  
Barbara P. S. Cometti ◽  
Brigitte Leeners ◽  
Marta Ewa Szutkowska ◽  
Edwin K. Jackson ◽  

Autocrine/paracrine factors generated in response to 17β-estradiol (E2) within the fallopian tube (FT) facilitate fertilization and early embryo development for implantation. Since cyclic AMP (cAMP) plays a key role in reproduction, regulation of its synthesis by E2 may be of biological/pathophysiological relevance. Herein, we investigated whether cAMP production in FT cells (FTCs) is regulated by E2 and environmental estrogens (EE’s; xenoestrogens and phytoestrogens). Under basal conditions, low levels of extracellular cAMP were detectable in bovine FTCs (epithelial cells and fibroblasts; 1:1 ratio). Treatment of FTCs with forskolin (AC; adenylyl cyclase activator), isoproterenol (β-adrenoceptor agonist) and IBMX (phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor) dramatically (>10 fold) increased cAMP; whereas LRE1 (sAC; soluble AC inhibitor) and 2’,5’-dideoxyadenosine (DDA; transmembrane AC (tmAC)) inhibitor decreased cAMP. Comparable changes in basal and stimulated intracellular cAMP were also observed. Ro-20-1724 (PDE-IV inhibitor), but not milrinone (PDE-III inhibitor) nor mmIBMX (PDE-I inhibitor), augmented forskolin-stimulated cAMP levels, suggesting that PDE-IV dominates in FTCs. E2 increased cAMP levels and CREB phosphorylation in FTCs, and these effects were mimicked by EE’s (genistein, 4-hydroxy-2’,4’,6’-trichlorobiphenyl, 4-hydroxy-2’,4’,6’-dichlorobiphenyl). Moreover, the effects of E2 and EE were blocked by the tmAC inhibitor DDA, but not by the ERα/β antagonist ICI182780. Moreover, BAPTA-AM (intracellular-Ca2+ chelator) abrogated the effects of E2, but not genistein, on cAMP suggesting differential involvement of Ca2+. Treatment with non-permeable E2-BSA induced cAMP levels and CREB-phosphorylation; moreover, the stimulatory effects of E2 and EEs on cAMP were blocked by G15, a G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) antagonist. E2 and IBMX induced cAMP formation was inhibited by LRE1 and DDA suggesting involvement of both tmAC and sAC. Our results provide the first evidence that in FTCs, E2 and EE’s stimulate cAMP synthesis via GPER. Exposure of the FT to EE’s and PDE inhibitors may result in abnormal non-cyclic induction of cAMP levels which may induce deleterious effects on reproduction.

2021 ◽  
pp. 111225
Fa-Li Zhang ◽  
Li Kong ◽  
Ai-Hong Zhao ◽  
Wei Ge ◽  
Zi-Hui Yan ◽  

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