Left Ventricular
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Kevin C. Maki ◽  
Meredith L. Wilcox ◽  
Mary R. Dicklin ◽  
Rahul Kakkar ◽  
Michael H. Davidson

Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease is an important driver of the increased mortality associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Higher left ventricular mass (LVM) predicts increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes and total mortality, but previous reviews have shown no clear association between intervention-induced LVM change and all-cause or cardiovascular mortality in CKD. Methods The primary objective of this meta-analysis was to investigate whether treatment-induced reductions in LVM over periods ≥12 months were associated with all-cause mortality in patients with CKD. Cardiovascular mortality was investigated as a secondary outcome. Measures of association in the form of relative risks (RRs) with associated variability and precision (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were extracted directly from each study, when reported, or were calculated based on the published data, if possible, and pooled RR estimates were determined. Results The meta-analysis included 42 trials with duration ≥12 months: 6 of erythropoietin stimulating agents treating to higher vs. lower hemoglobin targets, 10 of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors vs. placebo or another blood pressure lowering agent, 14 of modified hemodialysis regimens, and 12 of other types of interventions. All-cause mortality was reported in 121/2584 (4.86%) subjects in intervention groups and 168/2606 (6.45%) subjects in control groups. The pooled RR estimate of the 27 trials ≥12 months with ≥1 event in ≥1 group was 0.72 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.90, p = 0.005), with little heterogeneity across studies. Directionalities of the associations in intervention subgroups were the same. Sensitivity analyses of ≥6 months (34 trials), ≥9 months (29 trials), and >12 months (10 trials), and including studies with no events in either group, demonstrated similar risk reductions to the primary analysis. The point estimate for cardiovascular mortality was similar to all-cause mortality, but not statistically significant: RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.16. Conclusions These results suggest that LVM regression may be a useful surrogate marker for benefits of interventions intended to reduce mortality risk in patients with CKD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Ming-Kui Zhang ◽  
Li-Na Li ◽  
Hui Xue ◽  
Xiu-Jie Tang ◽  
He Sun ◽  

Abstract Background Aortic valve replacement (AVR) for chronic aortic regurgitation (AR) with a severe dilated left ventricle and dysfunction leads to left ventricle remodeling. But there are rarely reports on the left ventricle reverse remodeling (LVRR) after AVR. This study aimed to investigate the LVRR and outcomes in chronic AR patients with severe dilated left ventricle and dysfunction after AVR. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the clinical datum of chronic aortic regurgitation patients who underwent isolated AVR. The LVRR was defined as an increase in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at least 10 points or a follow-up LVEF ≥ 50%, and a decrease in the indexed left ventricular end-diastolic diameter of at least 10%, or an indexed left ventricular end-diastolic diameter ≤ 33 mm/m2. The changes in echocardiographic parameters after AVR, survival analysis, the predictors of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), the association between LVRR and MACE were analyzed. Results Sixty-nine patients with severe dilated left ventricle and dysfunction underwent isolated AVR. LV remodeling in 54 patients and no LV remodeling in 15 patients at 6–12 months follow-up. The preoperative left ventricular dimensions and volumes were larger, and the EF was lower in the LV no remodeling group than those in the LV remodeling group (all p < 0.05). The adverse LVRR was the predictor for MACE at follow-up. The mean follow-up period was 47.29 months (range 6 to 173 months). The rate of freedom from MACE was 94.44% at 5 years and 92.59% at 10 years in the remodeling group, 60% at 5 years, and 46.67% at 10 years in the no remodeling group. Conclusions The left ventricle remodeling after AVR was the important predictor for MACE. LV no remodeling may not be associated with benefits from AVR for chronic aortic regurgitation patients with severe dilated LV and dysfunction.

2022 ◽  
Vol 44 (1) ◽  
pp. 433-448
Ashfaq Ahmad

Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is characterized by increased myocardium thickness due to increased oxidative stress and downregulation of cystathione γ lyase (CSE) endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Upregulation of CSE by hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and ENOS by L-arginine can arrest the progression of LVH individually. The present study explored the combined treatment of H2S and NO in the progression of LVH, and demonstrated that the response is due to H2S, NO or formation of either new molecule in physiological, pathological, and pharmacological in vivo settings of LVH. Exogenous administration H2S+NO in LVH significantly reduced (all p < 0.05) systolic blood pressure (SBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP), LV index, heart index and oxidative stress when compared to the LVH group. There was downregulation of CSE mRNA and eNOS in the heart, and exogenous administration of H2S+NO groups upregulated eNOS MRNA while CSE MRNA remained downregulated in the hearts of the LVH group. Similar trends were observed with concentrations of H2S and NO in the plasma and tissue. It can be concluded that combined treatment of LVH with H2S and NO significantly ameliorate the progression of LVH by attenuating systemic hemodynamic and physical indices, and by decreasing oxidative stress. Molecular expression data in the myocardium of LVH depicts that combined treatment upregulated eNOS/NO while it downregulated CSE/H2S pathways in in vivo settings, and it is always eNOS/NO pathways which play a major role.

2022 ◽  
Jakob Ledwoch ◽  
Jana Kraxenberger ◽  
Anna Krauth ◽  
Alisa Schneider ◽  
Katharina Leidgschwendner ◽  

AbstractHigh-sensitive troponin T (hs-TnT) is increasingly used for prognostication in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). However, uncertainty exists whether hs-TnT shows comparable prognostic performance in patients with heart failure and different classes of left ventricular ejection fraction (LV-EF). The aim of the present study was to assess the prognostic value of hs-TnT for the prediction of 30-day mortality depending on the presence of HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), HF with mid-range LV-EF (HFmrEF) and HF with reduced LV-EF (HFrEF) in patients with acutely decompensated HF. Patients admitted to our institution due to AHF were retrospectively included. Clinical information was gathered from electronic and paper-based patient charts. Patients with myocardial infarction were excluded. A total of 847 patients were enrolled into the present study. A significant association was found between HF groups and hs-TnT (regression coefficient -0.018 for HFpEF vs. HFmrEF/HFrEF; p = 0.02). The area under the curve (AUC) of hs-TnT for the prediction of 30-mortality was significantly lower in patients with HFpEF (AUC 0.61) than those with HFmrEF (AUC 0.80; p = 0.01) and HFrEF (AUC 0.73; p = 0.04). Hs-TnT was not independently associated with 30-day outcome in the HFpEF group (OR 1.48 [95%-CI 0.89–2.46]; p = 0.13) in contrast to the HFmrEF group (OR 4.53 [95%-CI 1.85–11.1]; p < 0.001) and HFrEF group (OR 2.58 [95%-CI 1.57–4.23]; p < 0.001). Prognostic accuracy of hs-TnT in patients hospitalized for AHF regarding 30-day mortality is significantly lower in patients with HFpEF compared to those with HFmrEF and HFrEF.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 946
Christina J. Codden ◽  
Michael T. Chin

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common inherited disorder characterized by unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy with or without left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction. Single-nuclei RNA-sequencing (snRNA-seq) of both obstructive and nonobstructive HCM patient samples has revealed alterations in communication between various cell types, but no direct and integrated comparison between the two HCM phenotypes has been reported. We performed a bioinformatic analysis of HCM snRNA-seq datasets from obstructive and nonobstructive patient samples to identify differentially expressed genes and distinctive patterns of intercellular communication. Differential gene expression analysis revealed 37 differentially expressed genes, predominantly in cardiomyocytes but also in other cell types, relevant to aging, muscle contraction, cell motility, and the extracellular matrix. Intercellular communication was generally reduced in HCM, affecting the extracellular matrix, growth factor binding, integrin binding, PDGF binding, and SMAD binding, but with increases in adenylate cyclase binding, calcium channel inhibitor activity, and serine-threonine kinase activity in nonobstructive HCM. Increases in neuron to leukocyte and dendritic cell communication, in fibroblast to leukocyte and dendritic cell communication, and in endothelial cell communication to other cell types, largely through changes in the expression of integrin-β1 and its cognate ligands, were also noted. These findings indicate both common and distinct physiological mechanisms affecting the pathogenesis of obstructive and nonobstructive HCM and provide opportunities for the personalized management of different HCM phenotypes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Bingman Liu ◽  
Qingqing Yang ◽  
Liangyu Zhao ◽  
Hua Shui ◽  
Xiaoyun Si

Abstract Background To verify that the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of vitamin D receptor (VDR) may lead to genetic susceptibility to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), the present study was designed to study four SNPs of VDR associated with LVH in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients of Han nationality. Methods 120 MHD patients were recruited at Department of Nephrology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University to analyze the expression of genotype, allele and haplotype of Fok I, Bsm I, Apa I and Taq I in blood samples, and to explore their correlation with blood biochemical indexes and ventricular remodeling. Results The results showed that the risks of CVD included gender, dialysis time, heart rate, SBP, glycated hemoglobin, calcium, iPTH and CRP concentration. Moreover, LAD, LVDd, LVDs, IVST and LVMI in B allele of Bsm I increased significantly. Fok I, Apa I and Taq I polymorphisms have no significant difference between MHD with LVH and without LVH. Further study showed that VDR expression level decreased significantly in MHD patients with LVH, and the B allele was positively correlated with VDR Expression. Conclusion VDR Bsm I gene polymorphism may predict cardiovascular disease risk of MDH patients, and provided theoretical basis for early detection and prevention of cardiovascular complications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 426
Giulia Brunetti ◽  
Alberto Cipriani ◽  
Martina Perazzolo Marra ◽  
Manuel De Lazzari ◽  
Barbara Bauce ◽  

Premature ventricular beats (PVBs) in athletes are not rare. The risk of PVBs depends on the presence of an underlying pathological myocardial substrate predisposing the subject to sudden cardiac death. The standard diagnostic work-up of athletes with PVBs includes an examination of family and personal history, resting electrocardiogram (ECG), 24 h ambulatory ECG (possibly with a 12-lead configuration and including a training session), maximal exercise testing and echocardiography. Despite its fundamental role in the diagnostic assessment of athletes with PVBs, echocardiography has very limited sensitivity in detecting the presence of non-ischemic left ventricular scars, which can be revealed only through more in-depth studies, particularly with the use of contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. The morphology, complexity and exercise inducibility of PVBs can help estimate the probability of an underlying heart disease. Based on these features, CMR imaging may be indicated even when echocardiography is normal. This review focuses on interpreting PVBs, and on the indication and role of CMR imaging in the diagnostic evaluation of athletes, with a special focus on non-ischemic left ventricular scars that are an emerging substrate of cardiac arrest during sport.

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