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Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 2442
Author(s):  
Hilde Sindre ◽  
Mona C. Gjessing ◽  
Johanna Hol Fosse ◽  
Lene C. Hermansen ◽  
Inger Böckerman ◽  
...  

The use of lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) as a cleaner fish to fight sea lice infestation in farmed Atlantic salmon has become increasingly common. Still, tools to increase our knowledge about lumpfish biology are lacking. Here, we successfully established and characterized the first Lumpfish Gill cell line (LG-1). LG-1 are adherent, homogenous and have a flat, stretched-out and almost transparent appearance. Transmission electron microscopy revealed cellular protrusions and desmosome-like structures that, together with their ability to generate a transcellular epithelial/endothelial resistance, suggest an epithelial or endothelial cell type. Furthermore, the cells exert Cytochrome P450 1A activity. LG-1 supported the propagation of several viruses that may lead to severe infectious diseases with high mortalities in fish farming, including viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). Altogether, our data indicate that the LG-1 cell line originates from an epithelial or endothelial cell type and will be a valuable in vitro research tool to study gill cell function as well as host-pathogen interactions in lumpfish.


Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 2445
Author(s):  
Malcolm A. Leissring

More than seven decades have passed since the discovery of a proteolytic activity within crude tissue extracts that would become known as insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE). Certainly much has been learned about this atypical zinc-metallopeptidase; at the same time, however, many quite fundamental gaps in our understanding remain. Herein, I outline what I consider to be among the most critical unresolved questions within the field, many presenting as intriguing paradoxes. For instance, where does IDE, a predominantly cytosolic protein with no signal peptide or clearly identified secretion mechanism, interact with insulin and other extracellular substrates? Where precisely is IDE localized within the cell, and what are its functional roles in these compartments? How does IDE, a bowl-shaped protein that completely encapsulates its substrates, manage to avoid getting “clogged” and thus rendered inactive virtually immediately? Although these paradoxes are by definition unresolved, I offer herein my personal insights and informed speculations based on two decades working on the biology and pharmacology of IDE and suggest specific experimental strategies for addressing these conundrums. I also offer what I believe to be especially fruitful avenues for investigation made possible by the development of new technologies and IDE-specific reagents. It is my hope that these thoughts will contribute to continued progress elucidating the physiology and pathophysiology of this important peptidase.


Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 2437
Author(s):  
Armin Mooranian ◽  
Corina Mihaela Ionescu ◽  
Susbin Raj Wagle ◽  
Bozica Kovacevic ◽  
Daniel Walker ◽  
...  

Introduction. Primary bile acids (PBAs) are produced and released into human gut as a result of cholesterol catabolism in the liver. A predominant PBA is chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), which in a recent study in our laboratory, showed significant excipient-stabilizing effects on microcapsules carrying insulinoma β-cells, in vitro, resulting in improved cell functions and insulin release, in the hyperglycemic state. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the applications of CDCA in bio-encapsulation and transplantation of primary healthy viable islets, preclinically, in type 1 diabetes. Methods. Healthy islets were harvested from balb/c mice, encapsulated in CDCA microcapsules, and transplanted into the epididymal tissues of 6 syngeneic diabetic mice, post diabetes confirmation. Pre-transplantation, the microcapsules’ morphology, size, CDCA-deep layer distribution, and physical features such as swelling ratio and mechanical strength were analyzed. Post-transplantation, animals’ weight, bile acids’, and proinflammatory biomarkers’ concentrations were analyzed. The control group was diabetic mice that were transplanted encapsulated islets (without PBA). Results and Conclusion. Islet encapsulation by PBA microcapsules did not compromise the microcapsules’ morphology or features. Furthermore, the PBA-graft performed better in terms of glycemic control and resulted in modulation of the bile acid profile in the brain. This is suggestive that the improved glycemic control was mediated via brain-related effects. However, the improvement in graft insulin delivery and glycemic control was short-term.


Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 2440
Author(s):  
Aytan Musayeva ◽  
Johanna C. Unkrig ◽  
Mayagozel B. Zhutdieva ◽  
Caroline Manicam ◽  
Yue Ruan ◽  
...  

Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) events are involved in the pathophysiology of numerous ocular diseases. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that betulinic acid protects from I/R injury in the mouse retina. Ocular ischemia was induced in mice by increasing intraocular pressure (IOP) to 110 mm Hg for 45 min, while the fellow eye served as a control. One group of mice received betulinic acid (50 mg/kg/day p.o. once daily) and the other group received the vehicle solution only. Eight days after the I/R event, the animals were killed and the retinal wholemounts and optic nerve cross-sections were prepared and stained with cresyl blue or toluidine blue, respectively, to count cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) of the retina and axons in the optic nerve. Retinal arteriole responses were measured in isolated retinas by video microscopy. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed in retinal cryosections and redox gene expression was determined in isolated retinas by quantitative PCR. I/R markedly reduced cell number in the GCL and axon number in the optic nerve of the vehicle-treated mice. In contrast, only a negligible reduction in cell and axon number was observed following I/R in the betulinic acid-treated mice. Endothelial function was markedly reduced and ROS levels were increased in retinal arterioles of vehicle-exposed eyes following I/R, whereas betulinic acid partially prevented vascular endothelial dysfunction and ROS formation. Moreover, betulinic acid boosted mRNA expression for the antioxidant enzymes SOD3 and HO-1 following I/R. Our data provide evidence that betulinic acid protects from I/R injury in the mouse retina. Improvement of vascular endothelial function and the reduction in ROS levels appear to contribute to the neuroprotective effect.


Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 2441
Author(s):  
Paweł Kordowitzki ◽  
Wing-Hong Jonathan Ho ◽  
Dave R. Listijono

According to the U.S. Special Operations Command (SOCOM), new clinical trials of an anti-aging oral treatment using nicotinamide adenine nucleotide are planned for 2022. All over the globe, the discovery of the fountain of youth is still a great goal to reach, not only among aging researchers, since people desire to stay longer healthy and feel young when reaching old age. Since the 1960s, women delaying pregnancy to pursue higher educational levels and a career path has contributed to drastically diminished overall female fertility rates (e.g., number of born offspring/woman). Consequently, a growing number of advanced-aged women depend on assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to become pregnant. In 2019, the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology reported 293672 cycles for oocyte retrieval. This change of demographics influenced women’s age of having their first child, which has increased significantly. However, their reproductive tract shows hallmarks of aging very early in life without an effective preventive treatment. Therefore, we will present whether NAD+ could help to prevent oocyte aging.


Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 2447
Author(s):  
Rona Aviram ◽  
Yaarit Adamovich ◽  
Gad Asher

Circadian clocks have evolved in most light-sensitive organisms, from unicellular organisms to mammals. Consequently, a myriad of biological functions exhibits circadian rhythmicity, from behavior to physiology, through tissue and cellular functions to subcellular processes. Circadian rhythms in intracellular organelles are an emerging and exciting research arena. We summarize herein the current literature for rhythmicity in major intracellular organelles in mammals. These include changes in the morphology, content, and functions of different intracellular organelles. While these data highlight the presence of rhythmicity in these organelles, a gap remains in our knowledge regarding the underlying molecular mechanisms and their functional significance. Finally, we discuss the importance and challenges faced by spatio-temporal studies on these organelles and speculate on the presence of oscillators in organelles and their potential mode of communication. As circadian biology has been and continues to be studied throughout temporal and spatial axes, circadian organelles appear to be the next frontier.


Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 2443
Author(s):  
Caleb J. Dalton ◽  
Christopher A. Lemmon

The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a key role as both structural scaffold and regulator of cell signal transduction in tissues. In times of ECM assembly and turnover, cells upregulate assembly of the ECM protein, fibronectin (FN). FN is assembled by cells into viscoelastic fibrils that can bind upward of 40 distinct growth factors and cytokines. These fibrils play a key role in assembling a provisional ECM during embryonic development and wound healing. Fibril assembly is also often upregulated during disease states, including cancer and fibrotic diseases. FN fibrils have unique mechanical properties, which allow them to alter mechanotransduction signals sensed and relayed by cells. Binding of soluble growth factors to FN fibrils alters signal transduction from these proteins, while binding of other ECM proteins, including collagens, elastins, and proteoglycans, to FN fibrils facilitates the maturation and tissue specificity of the ECM. In this review, we will discuss the assembly of FN fibrils from individual FN molecules; the composition, structure, and mechanics of FN fibrils; the interaction of FN fibrils with other ECM proteins and growth factors; the role of FN in transmitting mechanobiology signaling events; and approaches for studying the mechanics of FN fibrils.


Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 2446
Author(s):  
Carlos M. González-Casimiro ◽  
Patricia Cámara-Torres ◽  
Beatriz Merino ◽  
Sergio Diez-Hermano ◽  
Tamara Postigo-Casado ◽  
...  

Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed Zn2+-metallopeptidase that regulates hepatic insulin sensitivity, albeit its regulation in response to the fasting-to-postprandial transition is poorly understood. In this work, we studied the regulation of IDE mRNA and protein levels as well as its proteolytic activity in the liver, skeletal muscle, and kidneys under fasting (18 h) and refeeding (30 min and 3 h) conditions, in mice fed a standard (SD) or high-fat (HFD) diets. In the liver of mice fed an HFD, fasting reduced IDE protein levels (~30%); whereas refeeding increased its activity (~45%) in both mice fed an SD and HFD. Likewise, IDE protein levels were reduced in the skeletal muscle (~30%) of mice fed an HFD during the fasting state. Circulating lactate concentrations directly correlated with hepatic IDE activity and protein levels. Of note, L-lactate in liver lysates augmented IDE activity in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, IDE protein levels in liver and muscle tissues, but not its activity, inversely correlated (R2 = 0.3734 and 0.2951, respectively; p < 0.01) with a surrogate marker of insulin resistance (HOMA index). Finally, a multivariate analysis suggests that circulating insulin, glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, and lactate levels might be important in regulating IDE in liver and muscle tissues. Our results highlight that the nutritional regulation of IDE in liver and skeletal muscle is more complex than previously expected in mice, and that fasting/refeeding does not strongly influence the regulation of renal IDE.


Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 2444
Author(s):  
Giorgia Conte ◽  
Aida Menéndez-Méndez ◽  
Sebastian Bauer ◽  
Hany El-Naggar ◽  
Mariana Alves ◽  
...  

Circulating molecules have potential as biomarkers to support the diagnosis of epilepsy and to assist with differential diagnosis, for example, in conditions resembling epilepsy, such as in psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES). The P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) is an important regulator of inflammation and mounting evidence supports its activation in the brain during epilepsy. Whether the P2X7R or P2X7R-dependent signaling molecules can be used as biomarkers of epilepsy has not been reported. P2X7R levels were analyzed by quantitative ELISA using plasma samples from controls and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) or PNES. Moreover, blood cell P2X7R expression and P2X7R-dependent cytokine signature was measured following status epilepticus in P2X7R-EGFP reporter, wildtype, and P2X7R-knockout mice. P2X7R plasma levels were higher in TLE patients when compared with controls and patients with PNES. Plasma levels of the broad inflammatory marker protein C-Reactive protein (CRP) were similar between the three groups. Using P2X7R-EGFP reporter mice, we identified monocytes as the main blood cell type expressing P2X7R after experimentally evoked seizures. Finally, cytokine array analysis in P2X7R-deficient mice identified KC/GRO as a potential P2X7R-dependent plasma biomarker following status epilepticus and during epilepsy. Our data suggest that P2X7R signaling components may be a promising subclass of circulating biomarkers to support the diagnosis of epilepsy.


Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 2439
Author(s):  
Monica Strawn ◽  
Joao G. N. Moraes ◽  
Timothy J. Safranski ◽  
Susanta K. Behura

In this study, transcriptomic changes of the developing brain of pig fetuses of both sexes were investigated on gestation days (GD) 45, 60 and 90. Pig fetal brain grows rapidly around GD60. Consequently, gene expression of the fetal brain was distinctly different on GD90 compared to that of GD45 and GD60. In addition, varying numbers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the male brain compared to the female brain during development. The sex of adjacent fetuses also influenced gene expression of the fetal brain. Extensive changes in gene expression at the exon-level were observed during brain development. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that the ionotropic glutamate receptor pathway and p53 pathway were enriched in the female brain, whereas specific receptor-mediated signaling pathways were enriched in the male brain. Marker genes of neurons and astrocytes were significantly differentially expressed between male and female brains during development. Furthermore, comparative analysis of gene expression patterns between fetal brain and placenta suggested that genes related to ion transportation may play a key role in the regulation of the brain-placental axis in pig. Collectively, the study suggests potential application of pig models to better understand influence of fetal sex on brain development.


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