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Published By Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)

2190-4715, 2190-4715

2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Carresse Gerald ◽  
Boris Deshazo ◽  
Hayden Patterson ◽  
Porché Spence

Abstract Background Third Fork Creek is a historically impaired urban stream that flows through the city of Durham, North Carolina. Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) are non-parasitic, soil and aquatic dwelling nematodes that have been used frequently as a biological and ecotoxicity model. We hypothesize that exposure to Third Fork Creek surface water will inhibit the growth and chemotaxis of C. elegans. Using our ring assay model, nematodes were enticed to cross the water samples to reach a bacterial food source which allowed observation of chemotaxis. The total number of nematodes found in the bacterial food source and the middle of the plate with the water source was recorded for 3 days. Results Our findings suggest a reduction in chemotaxis and growth on day three in nematodes exposed to Third Fork Creek water samples when compared to the control (p value < 0.05). These exploratory data provide meaningful insight to the quality of Third Fork Creek located near a Historically Black University. Conclusions Further studies are necessary to elucidate the concentrations of the water contaminants and implications for human health. The relevance of this study lies within the model C. elegans that has been used in a plethora of human diseases and exposure research but can be utilized as an environmental indicator of water quality impairment.


2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Chen Shen ◽  
Xiang-Chang Yin ◽  
Bo-Yang Jiao ◽  
Jing Li ◽  
Peng Jia ◽  
...  

Abstract Objective A systematic review of animal and human studies was conducted on genetically modified (GM) food consumption to assess its safety in terms of adverse effects/events to inform public concerns and future research. Methods Seven electronic databases were searched from January 1st 1983 till July 11th 2020 for in vivo, animal and human studies on the incidence of adverse effects/events of GM products consumption. Two authors independently identified eligible studies, assessed the study quality, and extracted data on the name of the periodical, author and affiliation, literature type, the theme of the study, publication year, funding, sample size, target population characteristics, type of the intervention/exposure, outcomes and outcome measures, and details of adverse effects/events. We used the Chi-square test to compare the adverse event reporting rates in articles funded by industry funding, government funding or unfunded articles. Results One crossover trial in humans and 203 animal studies from 179 articles met the inclusion criteria. The study quality was all assessed as being unclear or having a high risk of bias. Minor illnesses were reported in the human trial. Among the 204 studies, 59.46% of adverse events (22 of 37) were serious adverse events from 16 animal studies (7.84%). No significant differences were found in the adverse event reporting rates either between industry and government funding (χ2 = 2.286, P = 0.131), industry and non-industry funding (χ2 = 1.761, P = 0.185) or funded and non-funded articles (χ2 = 0.491, P = 0.483). We finally identified 21 GM food-related adverse events involving 7 GM events (NK603 × MON810 maize, GTS 40-3-2 soybean, NK603 maize, MON863 maize, MON810 maize, MON863 × MON810 × NK603 maize and GM Shanyou 63 rice), which had all been on regulatory approval in some countries/regions. Conclusion Serious adverse events of GM consumption include mortality, tumour or cancer, significant low fertility, decreased learning and reaction abilities, and some organ abnormalities. Further clinical trials and long-term cohort studies in human populations, especially on GM food-related adverse events and the corresponding GM events, are still warranted. It suggests the necessity of labelling GM food so that consumers can make their own choice.


2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yan Liu ◽  
Xue Li ◽  
Xiaocui Qiao ◽  
Xingru Zhao ◽  
Simin Ge ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The residual chemical pollutants in drinking water may cause adverse effects on human health. Chemical compounds potentially affecting human health have been widely explored, while the multiphasic evaluation of chemical compounds by process control and human health risk is still rarely reported. In the present study, we used multiphasic criteria to assess the health risk including effluent concentration, accumulation index, purification index for the removal efficiency during the drinking water treatment processes, carcinogen classification based on the International Agency for Research on Cancer standards, non-carcinogenic health hazards and carcinogenic risk. Results Among the monitored chemicals, 47 and 44 chemical compounds were detected in raw water and treated water, respectively. The generation and removal of chemical compounds implied that the migration and transformation of chemicals during the purification processes affected the effluent concentration, posing a direct potential health risk. Of these compounds, 41 contaminants’ profiles were screened as priority chemical compounds (PCCs). Conclusions The top eight PCCs with high carcinogenic risk were highlighted. Some effective steps, such as protecting the raw water sources, improving the removal performance and reducing the disinfection by-products during the purification process by introducing advanced treatment technologies, were suggested to maintain drinking water security. Collectively, our findings provided novel scientific supports for the sustainable management of drinking water to promote human health. Graphical Abstract


2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Adewumi Olufemi Oluwole ◽  
Olatunde Stephen Olatunji

Abstract Background Pharmaceuticals is one of the groups of contaminants of emerging concern that are resistant to decomposition or removal by most of the existing water and wastewater treatment procedures, hence the need to develop techniques to facilitate the removals of this group of organic contaminants from water systems. In this study, needle-like SnO2 nanoparticles was synthesised and loaded on exfoliated g-C3N4 nanosheet through a hydrothermal method, for use as sensitive visible light induce-photocatalyst for the decomposition of tetracycline in aqueous systems. The synthesised composites was characterized and analysed for the nature of the heterojunction between the SnO2 nanoparticle and g-C3N4 nanosheet using microscopic and spectroscopic techniques. Results The composites were of improved surface properties and enhanced visible-light absorption. The synthesised SnO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites with various amounts of SnO2 (10–50 mg), employed in the degradation of tetracycline under visible light irradiation, were of good degradation efficiency. The degradation efficiencies of tetracycline by 1 wt.%, 2 wt.%, 3 wt.% and 5 wt.% SnO2/g-C3N4 photocatalyst were 81.54%, 90.57%, 95.90% and 92.15% as compared to g-C3N4 and SnO2 with 40.92% and 51.32% degradation efficiencies. The synergistic interaction between the needle-like SnO2 and exfoliated g-C3N4 nanosheet promoted the separation of photogenerated electron holes pairs, which enhanced their migration rate between SnO2 and g-C3N4 heterojunction, thereby facilitating the degradation of tetracycline. The ·O2− was noted to be the major reactive species in the photocatalytic of the 3 wt.% SnO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposite. Conclusion The fabricated SnO2 nanoparticles anchored on exfoliated g-C3N4 showed good performance for the decomposition of tetracycline in water, with possible application on other pharmaceuticals having same moiety (similar chemical structures).


2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ruihua Wang ◽  
Qiaoyuan Fei ◽  
Shan Liu ◽  
Xueqiong Weng ◽  
Huanzhu Liang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS) have replaced bisphenol A (BPA) in the manufacturing of products containing polycarbonates and epoxy resins; however, the effects of these substitutes on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including congestive heart failure, coronary heart disease, angina pectoris, heart attack, and stroke, have not been assessed. Objective To examine the association of urinary BPS and BPF with CVD risk in a U.S. representative U.S. population. Methods Cross-sectional data from 1267 participants aged 20–80 years from the 2013–2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. Survey-weighted multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association between BPA, BPF, BPS and CVD. The Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) model was applied to assess the mixture effect. Results A total of 138 patients with CVD were identified. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the T3 tertile concentration of BPS increased the risk of total CVD (OR: 1.99, 95% CI 1.16–3.40). When stratified by age, we found that BPS increased the risk of CVD in the 50–80 age group (OR: 1.40, 95% CI 1.05–1.87). BPS was positively associated with the risk of coronary heart disease, and the T3 tertile concentration of BPS increased the coronary heart disease risk by 2.22 times (95% CI 1.04–4.74). No significant association was observed between BPF and CVD. Although the BKMR model did not identify the mixed exposure effect of BPS, the risk of CVD increased with increasing compound concentration. Conclusion Our results suggest that BPS may increase the risk of total CVD and coronary heart disease in the US population, and prospective studies are needed to confirm the results.


2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Naina Kumar ◽  
Amit Kant Singh

Abstract Background Worldwide rising trend in infertility has been observed in the past few years with male infertility arising as a major problem. One main reason for the rise in male infertility cases is declining semen quality. It was found that any factor that affects semen quality can affect male fertility. There are several modifiable factors affecting semen quality including air pollution, use of pesticides and harmful chemicals, exposure to excessive heat, and can lead to decreased male fertility. Main body The present review focuses on some of these environmental factors that affect semen quality and hence, can cause male infertility. The literature from 2000 till June 2021 was searched from various English peer-reviewed journals and WHO fact sheets using the USA National Library of Medicine (PubMed) database, the regional portal of Virtual Health Library, and Scientific Electronic Library Online. The search terms used were: “Air pollution and male fertility”, “Chemicals and male infertility”, “Heat exposure and infertility”, “heavy metals and male fertility”. Conclusion Adverse environmental factors have a significant impact on semen quality, leading to decreased sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, viability, and increased abnormal sperm morphology, sperm DNA fragmentation, ultimately causing male infertility. However, all these factors are modifiable and reversible, and hence, by mere changing of lifestyle, many of these risk factors can be avoided.


2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Rui Yang ◽  
Shiqiang Wu ◽  
Xiufeng Wu ◽  
Mariusz Ptak ◽  
Xudong Li ◽  
...  

Abstract Background River damming inevitably reshapes water thermal conditions that are important to the general health of river ecosystems. Although a lot of studies have addressed the damming’s thermal impacts, most of them just assess the overall effects of climate variation and human activities on river thermal dynamics. Less attention has been given to quantifying the impact of climate variation, damming and flow regulation, respectively. In addition, for rivers that have already faced an erosion problem in downstream channels, an adjustment of the hydroelectric power plant operation manner is expected, which reinforces the need for understanding of flow regulation’s thermal impact. To fill this gap, an air2stream-based approach is proposed and applied at the Włocławek Reservoir in the Vistula River in Poland. Results In the years of 1952–1983, downstream river water temperature rose by 0.31 ℃ after damming. Meanwhile, the construction of dam increased the average annual water temperature by 0.55 ℃, while climate change oppositely made it decreased by 0.26 ℃. In addition, for the seasonal impact of damming, autumn was the most affected season with the warming reached 1.14 ℃, and the least affected season was winter when water temperature experienced a warming of 0.1 ℃. The absolute values of seasonal average temperature changes due to flow regulation were less than 0.1 ℃ for all the seasons. Conclusions The impacts of climate variation, damming, and flow regulation on river water temperatures can be evaluated reasonably on the strength of the proposed methodology. Climate variation and damming led to general opposite impacts on the downstream water temperature at the Włocławek Reservoir before 1980s. It is noted that the climate variation impact showed an opposite trend compared to that after 1980s. Besides, flow regulation below dam hardly affected downstream river water temperature variation. This study extends the current knowledge about impacts of climate variation and hydromorphological conditions on river water temperature, with a study area where river water temperature is higher than air temperature throughout a year.


2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Mona Connolly ◽  
David Hernández-Moreno ◽  
Estefanía Conde ◽  
Alicia Garnica ◽  
José M. Navas ◽  
...  

Abstract Background This study was conducted to provide much needed information on the potential of low solubility, highly biodurable nanoparticles (NPs) (TiO2 and CeO2 NPs), to bioaccumulate in fish and to investigate the relationship between an engineered nanomaterials surface coating, uptake and biokinetics in vivo. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed diets spiked with uncoated or surface coated (polyethylene glycol (PEG) or citrate (CIT)) TiO2 and CeO2 NPs (100 mg NPs/kg feed) for 10 days and thereafter fish were allowed to depurate for 42 days. Special care was taken to measure the real dispersed and actual administered concentrations, taking into consideration any potential losses from leaching, and to characterise the form (size, aggregation state, charge) of the NPs to which the fish were exposed. Results The coatings had an influence on levels of uptake and distributions. Most notably a higher uptake of PEG and CIT coated TiO2 and CeO2 NPs compared to fish exposed to uncoated materials was observed. The elimination of any Ti from tissues was rapid during the first day of depuration, whereas Ce levels remained in fish tissues (stomach, intestine and liver) with differences in depuration and redistribution of the three types of CeO2 NPs. However, no bioaccumulation potential for both tested metal oxide NPs in fish irrespective of coatings is expected according to BMF values < 1. Conclusions Distinct uptake, distribution and depuration kinetics in rainbow trout have been evidenced for different metal oxide NPs (TiO2 and CeO2 NPs). Coatings influenced uptake and in some cases led to slower depuration and distinct distributions, but do not make the uncoated NPs studied bioaccumulative (BMF > 1). Graphical Abstract


2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Juan Uribe-Toril ◽  
José Luis Ruiz-Real ◽  
Alejandro C. Galindo Durán ◽  
José Antonio Torres Arriaza ◽  
Jaime de Pablo Valenciano

Abstract Background The Circular Economy system can improve the product cycle and changes the system and mentality, both for production and the consumer and has become a significant alternative to the classic economic model. The retail sector has also started to advance along these lines. Following an analysis of the state of the art of the Circular Economy and retailing, using bibliometric techniques, our research focuses on understanding if the relationship between circularity and retailing can help us determine a business’ survivability and resilience. To this end, data pertaining to 658 commercial premises from four cities were studied over a period of 11 years. A Deep Learning technique is applied using Long Short-Term Memory to determine if there is a relationship between the resistance of the selected commercial premises, their status in previous periods of time, the type of business activity, and their classification in the Circular Economy plane. Results The system predicts, on the set of tests, with a 93.17% accuracy, the survival of a commercial premises based on the activity, and circularity information before 2012. The results of the training also show very significant precision values of the order of 94.15% with data from the post-depression period. Conclusions The results show that businesses with activities related to the Circular Economy are more likely to survive over extended periods of time.


2021 ◽  
Vol 33 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Dean Leverett ◽  
Graham Merrington ◽  
Mark Crane ◽  
Jim Ryan ◽  
Iain Wilson

AbstractDiclofenac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory human and veterinary medicine widely detected in European surface waters, especially downstream from Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs). Veterinary uses of diclofenac in Europe are greatly restricted, so wastewater is the key exposure route for wildlife. Proposed Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) which include an assessment of toxicity to aquatic organisms are under consideration by the European Commission (EC) to support the aims of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The EC approach favours the use of a deterministic (single test value and an assessment factor) approach to the derivation of a direct toxicity EQS for diclofenac, resulting in an EQS of 0.040 µg L−1 based on a single mesocosm study. In this paper, we discuss potential issues with this approach with respect to the EC’s own guidance on EQS derivation and derive an evidence-driven alternative EQS of 0.126 µg L−1 using a probabilistic (species sensitivity distribution) approach that accounts for all of the reliable and relevant data and is in accordance with the guidance. Europe-wide freshwater monitoring data for diclofenac are used in an indicative compliance assessment using the EC and the alternative evidence-driven EQS. The implications of using only some data to derive an EQS that does not adhere to the guidance, compared to a guidance-compliant approach that uses all the data available are also discussed.


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