gestational diabetes
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Giuseppe Seghieri ◽  
Graziano Di Cianni ◽  
Elisa Gualdani ◽  
Alessandra De Bellis ◽  
Flavia Franconi ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Stuti Bahl ◽  
Neeta Dhabhai ◽  
Sunita Taneja ◽  
Pratima Mittal ◽  
Rupali Dewan ◽  

Abstract Background The burden of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) appears to be increasing in India and may be related to the double burden of malnutrition. The population-based incidence and risk factors of GDM, particularly in lower socio-economic populations, are not known. We conducted analyses on data from a population-based cohort of pregnant women in South Delhi, India, to determine the incidence of GDM, its risk factors and association with adverse pregnancy outcomes (stillbirth, preterm birth, large for gestational age babies) and need for caesarean section. Methods We analyzed data from the intervention group of the Women and Infants Integrated Interventions for Growth Study (WINGS), an individually randomized factorial design trial. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at the time of confirmation of pregnancy, and for those who had a normal test (≤140 mg), it was repeated at 24–28 and at 34–36 weeks. Logistic regression was performed to ascertain risk factors associated with GDM. Risk ratios (RR) were calculated to find association between GDM and adverse pregnancy outcomes and need for caesarean section. Results 19.2% (95% CI: 17.6 to 20.9) pregnant women who had at least one OGTT were diagnosed to have GDM. Women who had prediabetes at the time of confirmation of pregnancy had a significantly higher risk of developing GDM (RR 2.08, 95%CI 1.45 to 2.97). Other risk factors independently associated with GDM were woman’s age (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.10, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.15) and BMI (AOR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.07). Higher maternal height was found to be protective factor for GDM (AOR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.00). Women with GDM, received appropriate treatment did not have an increase in adverse outcomes and no increased need for caesarean section Conclusions A substantial proportion of pregnant women from a low to mid socio-economic population in Delhi had GDM, with older age, higher BMI and pre-diabetes as important risk factors. These findings highlight the need for interventions for prevention and provision of appropriate management of GDM in antenatal programmes. Clinical trial registration Clinical Trial Registry – India, #CTRI/2017/06/008908 (

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 359
Mingxuan Cui ◽  
Xuening Li ◽  
Chen Yang ◽  
Linlin Wang ◽  
Lulu Lu ◽  

Carbohydrates play an important role in blood glucose control in pregnant women with GDM. Carbohydrate-restricted dietary (CRD) pattern for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been widely used in clinics, but the change in insulin utilization rate beyond CRD intervention in GDM remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to explore the application of insulin in pregnancy with GDM, as well as the influence of CRD pattern on lipid metabolism and nutritional state. A retrospective study of 265 women with GDM who delivered in Peking University People’s Hospital from July 2018 to January 2020 was conducted using a questionnaire survey. Women were divided into a CRD group or a control group according to whether they had received CRD intervention during pregnancy. There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of insulin therapy between the two groups (p > 0.05), the initial gestational week of the CRD group combined with insulin treatment was significantly higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05), and the risk of insulin therapy was positively correlated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in early pregnancy (p < 0.05). The incidence of abnormal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in the CRD group was significantly lower than that in the control group (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in nutritional indexes between the two groups. The results indicate that CRD intervention may be effective in delaying the use of insulin and improving the blood lipids metabolism during GDM pregnancy, while nutritional status may not be significantly affected under CRD intervention, and a high FPG in early pregnancy with GDM may be a risk factor for combined insulin therapy with CRD intervention.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Abby F. Fleisch ◽  
Sudipta Kumer Mukherjee ◽  
Subrata K. Biswas ◽  
John F. Obrycki ◽  
Sheikh Muhammad Ekramullah ◽  

Abstract Background Arsenic exposure has been associated with gestational diabetes mellitus. However, the extent to which arsenic exposure during pregnancy is associated with postpartum glucose intolerance is unknown. Methods We studied 323 women in Bangladesh. We assessed arsenic exposure in early pregnancy via toenail and water samples. We measured fasting glucose and insulin in serum at a mean (SD) of 4.0 (3.5) weeks post-delivery. We ran covariate-adjusted, linear regression models to examine associations of arsenic concentrations with HOMA-IR, a marker of insulin resistance, and HOMA-β, a marker of beta cell function. Results Median (IQR) arsenic concentration was 0.45 (0.67) μg/g in toenails and 2.0 (6.5) μg/L in drinking water. Arsenic concentrations during pregnancy were not associated with insulin resistance or beta cell function postpartum. HOMA-IR was 0.07% (− 3.13, 3.37) higher and HOMA-β was 0.96% (− 3.83, 1.99) lower per IQR increment in toenail arsenic, but effect estimates were small and confidence intervals crossed the null. Conclusions Although arsenic exposure during pregnancy has been consistently associated with gestational diabetes mellitus, we found no clear evidence for an adverse effect on postpartum insulin resistance or beta cell function.

María Morales-Suárez-Varela ◽  
Isabel Peraita-Costa ◽  
Alfredo Perales-Marín ◽  
Agustín Llopis-Morales ◽  
Agustín Llopis-González

Pregnant women are among the most vulnerable to environmental exposure to tobacco smoke (EET); which has been linked to problems in the mothers’ health; one of the most frequent is gestational diabetes (GD). For this reason, there are specific interventions and prevention strategies designed to reduce this exposure risk. However, currently, they are mostly aimed only at aiding the pregnant women with smoking cessation during pregnancy and do not assess or address the risk from passive exposure due to partner smoking. The aim of this work is to study the exposure to EET of pregnant women considering active and passive smoking and to evaluate its effect on the development of GD. This is an observational case-control study within a retrospective cohort of pregnant women. Information on smoking habits was obtained from both personal interviews and recorded medical history. In total, 16.2% of mothers and 28.3% of partners declared having been active smokers during pregnancy; 36.5% of the women presented EET during pregnancy when both active and passive smoking were considered. After adjustments, the association with the EET and GD of the mother was (aOR 1.10 95% CI: 0.64–1.92); for the EET of the partner, it was (aOR 1.66 95% CI: 1.01–2.77); for both partners, it was (aOR 1.82 95% CI: 1.15–2.89), adjusted by the mother’s age and body mass index. There is a lack of education regarding the effects of passive exposure to tobacco smoke. It is essential that pregnant women and their partners are educated on the risks of active and passive smoking; this could improve the effectiveness of other GD prevention strategies.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262618
Louise Søndergaard Rold ◽  
Caspar Bundgaard-Nielsen ◽  
Julie Niemann Holm-Jacobsen ◽  
Per Glud Ovesen ◽  
Peter Leutscher ◽  

Background The incidence of women developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing, which is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for both mother and child. Gut microbiota dysbiosis may contribute to the pathogenesis of both GDM and the accompanying risk of T2DM. Thus, a better understanding of the microbial communities associated with GDM could offer a potential target for intervention and treatment in the future. Therefore, we performed a systematic review to investigate if the GDM women have a distinct gut microbiota composition compared to non-GDM women. Methods We identified 21 studies in a systematic literature search of Embase and PubMed up to February 24, 2021. Data on demographics, methodology and identified microbial metrics were extracted. The quality of each study was assessed according to the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results Sixteen of the studies did find a GDM-associated gut microbiota, although no consistency could be seen. Only Collinsella and Blautia showed a tendency to be increased in GDM women, whereas the remaining genera were significantly different in opposing directions. Conclusion Although most of the studies found an association between GDM and gut microbiota dysbiosis, no overall GDM-specific gut microbiota could be identified. All studies in the second trimester found a difference between GDM and non-GDM women, indicating that dysbiosis is present at the time of diagnosis. Nevertheless, it is still unclear when the dysbiosis develops, as no consensus could be seen between the studies investigating the gut microbiota in the first trimester of pregnancy. However, studies varied widely concerning methodology and study design, which might explain the highly heterogeneous gut microbiota compositions between studies. Therefore, future studies need to include multiple time points and consider possible confounding factors such as ethnicity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and GDM treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Hanxiang Sun ◽  
Yang Liu ◽  
Shijia Huang ◽  
Xiaosong Liu ◽  
Guohua Li ◽  

ObjectiveTo study the association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes of singleton pregnancies after assisted reproductive technology (ART).MethodsThis hospital-based retrospective cohort study of women with live singleton births through ART in China from January 2015 to August 2020 included 3043 Chinese women. According to the latest BMI classification standard of Asian women, the women included in this study were classified as underweight (BMI &lt;18.5 kg/m2), normal (BMI 18.5 to &lt;23 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 23 to &lt;27.5 kg/m2), and obese (BMI ≥27.5 kg/m2). We compared the risk of adverse outcomes of different pre-pregnancy BMI values of women with singleton pregnancies conceived through ART. We used Logistic regression analysis to estimate the associations between pre-pregnancy BMI and adverse perinatal and neonatal outcomes.ResultsOur findings showed that women who were overweight or obese before pregnancy through ART are more likely to have a cesarean section, gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia, regardless of whether confounding factors are adjusted. Moreover, pre-pregnancy obesity was more associated with a higher risk of these adverse outcomes than pre-pregnancy overweight. In addition, neonates from women who had obesity before pregnancy through ART were more likely to have macrosomia; adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 3.004 (1.693-5.330).ConclusionsOur research showed that women who had pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity with singleton pregnancies through ART were more likely to have a cesarean section, gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia. Moreover, neonates from women who had obesity before pregnancy were more likely to have macrosomia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 384
Ilona Juchnicka ◽  
Mariusz Kuźmicki ◽  
Piotr Zabielski ◽  
Adam Krętowski ◽  
Agnieszka Błachnio-Zabielska ◽  

We hypothesized that sphingolipids may be early biomarkers of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Here, 520 women with normal fasting plasma glucose levels were recruited in the first trimester and tested with a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test in the 24th–28th week of pregnancy. Serum sphingolipids concentrations were measured in the first and the second trimester by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS) in 53 patients who were diagnosed with GDM, as well as 82 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 32 non-pregnant women. In the first trimester, pregnant women showed higher concentrations of C16:0, C18:1, C22:0, C24:1, and C24:0-Cer and lower levels of sphinganine (SPA) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) compared to non-pregnant women. During pregnancy, we observed significant changes in C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, and C24:1-Cer levels in the GDM group and C18:1 and C24:0-Cer in NGT. The GDM (pre-conversion) and NGT groups in the first trimester differed solely in the levels of C18:1-Cer (AUC = 0.702 p = 0.008), also considering glycemia. Thus, C18:1-Cer revealed its potential as a GDM biomarker. Sphingolipids are known to be a modulator of insulin resistance, and our results indicate that ceramide measurements in early pregnancy may help with GDM screening.

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